Judgments about the excused people for Wudu
• What does having an excuse for wudu mean?
A continuous state that invalidates wudu is called an excuse. For instance, being unable to control one’s urine, passing wind continuously, frequent nose bleeding, pus continuously flowing out of a wound are states that make one excused for wudu.
A person who has something like that preventing him from retaining wudu is called an excused person.
• What is the condition for being regarded excused for wudu?
A person can be regarded as excused if the state that invalidates wudu continues during the whole time of a prayer; that is, it must not stop even for a short time that is enough to make wudu and perform the prayer. (It is the condition for the state of being excused to start.) After that, it must take place at least once in each time of prayer. (It is the condition for the state of being excused to continue.)
Let us explain it with an example:
If the nose of a person starts to bleed at the beginning time for the noon prayer and if it continues to flow without interruption until the time for the noon prayer ends, the condition for the state of being excused starts for that person. If he experiences at least one bleeding in each prayer time after that, he is regarded to be excused because the state of being excused is repeated in each time of prayer; so, it becomes clear that the excuse continues, which means the realization of the second condition of being excused.
If the excuse does not appear during the time limits of a prayer, the state of being excused ends. Such a person is not regarded to be excused any more.
• What are the Judgments for those are Excused for Wudu?
Our religion makes it very easy for those who are excused for wudu. Their wudu is not regarded to be invalidated as long as the state that invalidates wudu continues. They perform their prayers in that state. They are not held responsible for cleaning the place again polluted by flows like the blood, pus and urine because they become dirty again immediately after they are cleaned. For instance, a person who cannot control his urine does not have to wash the place polluted by the urine, and the flow of urine does not invalidate his wudu. He can perform his prayers although the urine pollutes his clothes. Our religion makes it so easy for the excused people to be regarded on wudu; however, those people should be very careful about the following issue:
A person who has been determined that he is excused has to make wudu for each prayer time; he can perform with that wudu as many supererogatory or missed prayers as he wants between the time limits of that fard prayer. He can also perform witr and janazah prayers with it.
The wudu that an excused person makes is valid only between the beginning time and the end of that prayer time. When the time for a prayer ends and the time for the next prayer starts, the wudu of the excused person is invalidated. He has to make wudu again for the new prayer time that starts. For instance, if an excused person makes wudu for the morning prayer, his wudu is valid until the time for the morning prayer ends. When that time ends, that is, when the sun rises, his wudu becomes invalid. He cannot perform any prayers with that wudu.
Another issue that the excused people should pay attention to is the fact that they cannot lead prayers in front of the people who are not excused. Therefore, it is not appropriate to force the excused people to lead prayers.
Since the wudu that excused people make for the morning prayer becomes invalid when the sun rises, they have to make wudu again for the eid and duha prayers.
The urine, blood, etc that pollute the clothes of an excused person do not invalidate his prayer as long as his excused states continues. The state of menstruation and puerperium for women have different fiqh decrees; the bleedings other than menstruation and puerperium and the continuous bleedings are regarded as excuses.
According to Imam Shafii, an excused person has to make wudu for each prayer to be performed.