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Giving Money to Beggars


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First of all, begging is a very bad way of earning money in Islam. Our Prophet (pbuh) said: "A person begs and begs.. eventually, he appears on the Day of Judgment with no flesh on his face.", "A person who begs money when he does not need, collects fire."(al-Hindi, VI/495; Ibn Hajar, Bulugh`1-Maram, (Exp) N/144). The Quran praises the poor that people think they are free from want because of their modesty and that do not beg insistently from people and adds that they are the people to be helped. (al-Baqara (2) 273) There are many obvious hadiths regarding the evil of begging. (see al-Hindi, ibid.)

However, when we look at some verses of the Quran and the actions and words of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), we see that it is necessary to give something to the person who begs not to reject him: When the ways of righteousness are listed in the Quran, the beggars are mentioned along with relatives, orphans, the needy and the wayfarers. (al-Baqara (2) 177) Since zakat (alms) is also mentioned in the same verse after beggars, it should be something other than zakat. In addition, when the characteristics of righteous people who deserve the blessings in <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Paradise are listed in two verses, the phrase "in their wealth and possessions, the right of the (needy), him who asked
and him who was prevented from asking is used. (See adh-Dhariyat, (51) 19; al-Maarij, (70) 25) It means it is necessary to give to the needy and the beggar that is not known whether he is needy or not.

In addition, in the Quran, there is another verse that says, "do not repulse the seeker". (adh-Dhuha 10) As a matter of fact, there are some scholars who understood it as asker, that is, who asks questions in order to learn his religion not as beggar.  (See Qurtubi XX/101)

However, the first meaning that comes to mind is beggar; even if it is possible to find other meanings for it, there is no sign that it does not cover the meaning of beggar.

Our Prophet always gave something to people who asked him kindly during his life; he even gave to those who asked rudely by saying "they made me choose between giving them some goods and being stingy, by using those rude words. I am not stingy.(bk. Müslim, Zekât,127 (Davudoğlu V/479 vd.)),

That is what understood from the words of our Prophet: "None of you should refuse a person who seeks something from you and should give him/her something even if he sees two gold bracelets on his/her arm "(Qurtubi, XX/101), "If the beggars would not tell lies, those who refused them would be harmed."(al--Hindi, VI/362) "Give something (even if it is very little) to the beggar or send him away with nice words; because he may be an angel who visits you to see how you use the blessings and bounties that Allah granted you."(Qurtubi, ibid.; For a similar hadith see al-Hindi, VI/390. (5) al-Hindi, VI/363) "Whoever gives something when he is asked for something for the sake of Allah, 70 rewards are recorded for him.".(5) "A person who begs by saying for the sake of Allah is damned; a person who refuses someone who says for the sake of Allah is damned too unless he has done something evil.", "Only Paradise is asked for the sake of Allah".(al-Hindi, VI/502-503) We have not searched about the degree of soundness of those hadiths. However, since there are a lot of them having the same meaning and since there is no hadith meaning the opposite, they show that it is appropriate to give something to beggars. 

Ibrahim b. Adham said: "Beggars are such good men; they carry provisions for us to the hereafter." Ibrahim an-Nahai said: "Beggars are the postmen of the hereafter. They come to your door and ask: Do you want to send something to your relatives? (Qurtubî, XX/101)

However, one does not have to give anything to beggars who sat on the roads and beg from anyone that passes by. If a beggar asks for something from you personally and says for Allah or for the sake of Allah, then it is necessary to give him something even if it is very little but he should be told in a suitable way that begging by saying so is very bad. Allah knows better but it is better not to give anything to those who beg in the mosque. Thus, it is possible to stop a bida (innovation). It is better not to give anything to those who beg as a profession although they dont need unless they ask personally from you. However, it is the order of Allah not to scold the beggar. It is also an order of Allah to send a beggar away by using kind words rather than giving him some money and then offending him.(See al-Baqara (2) 263)<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


 


İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi (Islamic Fiqh Encyclopedia)


 



02-07-2009 11:00:00