The Siege of Taif
The people of Thaqif, who were defeated by Muslims in the Battle of Hunayn, took refuge in their land, Taif; they closed the gates of the city and prepared to fight.
It was one of the last shelters of polytheism. They had to be defeated so that they would never have the courage to oppose Islam. Malik b. Awf, who had made the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif revolt against Muslims, took shelter there, too. It was necessary to catch him and punish him.
Therefore, the Prophet set off toward Taif with the mujahids. He knew Taif very well. Years ago, he had experienced the most painful days of his life there. He had gone to Taif to invite them to Islam but they had stoned him and he was drenched in blood.
The Islamic army reached the land of Taif soon. However, the people of Thaqif had locked themselves into their castle and stocked plenty of food as a precaution.
It was not possible to enter the city by climbing the walls. Therefore, the Messenger of God besieged the city. The headquarters of the Islamic army was near the city walls; therefore, the mujahids received many arrow shots. Meanwhile, several mujahids were martyred by arrows.
Thereupon, the Messenger of God moved the headquarters back, near the place where the Mosque of Taif is located today. Two tents were put up for Umm Salama and Zaynab, the wives of the Prophet. The Messenger of God performed his prayers between these two tents and sat there. After the people of Thaqif became Muslims, they built a mosque there and named it “Sariya Mosque”
During the siege, fighting continued in the form of throwing arrows.
The People of Thaqif are Stoned Through Catapults
When the Prophet saw that the siege prolonged and that the people of Thaqif had no intention of surrendering, he talked to the mujahids to set up some catapults and throw stones at them.
Salman al-Farisi said, “I find it appropriate; we used to set up catapults in Persia in the castles and the enemy also used to set up catapults against us. Thus, it was easier to defeat each other. When there were no catapults, we had to wait for a long time.”
The Messenger of God liked the idea of Salman and ordered a catapult to be set up. The order was fulfilled. There were two catapults in the army; with the new one that was set up, the number of the catapults amounted to three. There were also two dabbadas (strong carriage made of cowhide) in the Islamic army.
The mujahids tried to go under these dabbadas and approach the castle and break through the wall but they could not manage it because the arrows, hot pieces of iron and pokers thrown by the enemy soldiers pierced the hide and made it difficult for them to proceed. Meanwhile, a few mujahids were martyred.
Attempt to Cut off Grapevines
The siege prolonged and the aim could not be realized. Thereupon, the Messenger of God took a different measure: In order to suppress the enemy economically, he announced that the vineyards and orchards that belonged to the notables of Taif and where high quality grapes were cultivated would be destroyed; and he ordered the mujahids to cut off the grapevines.
When the people of Thaqif saw that their vineyards and orchards, which were their only source of income, were being destroyed, they said to the Prophet, “O Muhammad! Why are you cutting off our plants? If you defeat us, you will take them. Otherwise, leave them to us by considering the consent of God and the rights of kinship.”
Thereupon, the Messenger of God said, “I am leaving your vineyards considering the consent of God and the rights of kinship.” Then, he prohibited the mujahids from cutting off their grapevines.
Meanwhile, Khalid b. Walid, the heroic Companion asked the enemy to send someone to fight him one-on-one. However, there was no reaction from the enemy. One of them said to Khalid,
“None of us will leave the castle to fight you. We are going to continue sitting in the castle. We have enough food stock for years. If we run out of food and if you prefer to wait until then, we will draw our swords and fight you until we die.”
A New Tactic
The siege went on and on. The people of Thaqif had no intention of leaving their castle and fighting one-on-one. They did not think of surrendering, either.
Thereupon, the Prophet used a different tactic. He had an announcement made: “Any slave that leaves the castle, joins us and becomes a Muslim will be free.”
Upon this announcement, about twenty slaves left the castle, joined the Islamic army and became Muslims. The Prophet freed them and surrendered each of them to a wealthy Muslim so that they will teach them how to read the Quran and teach them about the sunnahs.
When the people of Thaqif later became Muslims, they asked the Prophet to return those slaves to them. However, the Prophet rejected their request by saying, “God freed them; I cannot return them to you.”
The Hypocrisy of Uyayna b. Hisn
Meanwhile, Uyayna b. Hisn went to the presence of the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of God! Let me go and talk to them; I will invite them to Islam. Maybe God will grant them guidance.”
When the Messenger of God let Uyayna, he went to the people of Taif and talked to them contrary to what he said to the Prophet, “By God, Muhammad has never encountered any people like you. Your castles are well-protected. Go on resisting.”
After that, Uyayna returned.
The Messenger of God said, “O Uyayna! What did you tell them?”
Uyayna spoke as if he was telling the truth: “I invited them to become Muslims. I said, ‘Muhammad will not return unless you surrender. Surrender and ask for forgiveness.’”
When Uyayna finished his talk, the Prophet said to him furiously, “You are lying. You said this and that.” The Prophet told him exactly what he had said.
Uyayna’s face blushed. He said, “You are telling the truth, O Messenger of God! I ask God to forgive me for what I said. I regret it. I repent to God.”
Meanwhile, Hazrat Umaru’l-Faruq said, “O Messenger of God! Let me kill him.”
The Messenger of God said, “No! People will say I am killing my Companions then.”
The Dream of the Prophet
One night, the Prophet saw a dream. He saw that he was offered a bowl of butter but a cock turned over the bowl with its beak and spilled the butter.
When the Prophet told his Companions about his dream, Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of God! I think you will not attain what you wish about the people of Taif today.”
The Prophet had the same idea. He said, “I do not think it is possible, either.
The Siege is Lifted
The Messenger of God realized that he would not be able to conquer Taif at that time. If he continued the siege, he would lose time.
Mnawhile, he told his Companions that he was not given the permission to conquer Taif for the time being.
Thereupon, Hazrat Umar said, “Shall we tell people to get ready to retreat?”
The Prophet said, “Yes...”
Thereupon, Hazrat Umar told the Muslims to get ready to leave Taif. Hazrat Umar also asked the Prophet, “O Messenger of God! Will you pray against the people of Thaqif?”
The Prophet said, “God did not allow me to pray against them. Get ready to move.”
However, some of the mujahids did not want to leave without attaining anything. The even said, “Where are we going without conquering Taif?”
They applied to Hazrat Abu Bakr. He said to them, “God and His Messenger know it better. The Messenger of God receives orders from the sky.”
Thereupon, they went to Hazrat Umaru’l-Faruq and talked to him. Hazrat Umar said to them,
“We experienced the Incident of Hudaybiyah. In Hudaybiyah, I had some doubts that only God knew. That day, I uttered some words that I had never uttered before to the Messenger of God (pbuh). My family and property were almost destroyed. There was no conquest better than the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah for the people. The number of the people who became Muslims after the Hudaybiyah was bigger than the number of people who became Muslims during the period between the day the Messenger of God (pbuh) was sent as a prophet and the day the Peace Treaty was signed in Hudaybiyah; and they became Muslims without any fighting. Whatever the Messenger of God does is good. After the Incident of Hudaybiyah, I cannot object to him for anything. This is God’s affair. He reveals to His Prophet whatever He wishes.”
When the Prophet noticed that the general opinion of the mujahids was to stay in Taif for some more time, he said to them, “Get ready to fight tomorrow morning.”
In the morning, they fought. However, this fighting brought about nothing but some wounds. The mujahids also believed that they could not conquer Taif. When the Prophet said, “Inshaallah, we will return tomorrow”, they were happy. The Prophet smiled at their state.
The Messenger of God and his army left Taif after a siege that lasted for about thirty days.
The people of Thaqif struggled with the mujahids a lot; they tired and wounded them; they also martyred about fourteen mujahids. Therefore, when the mujahids were about to leave, they asked the Prophet to pray against the people of Thaqif. However, the Prophet, who was sent as mercy to the realms, prayed as follows: “O God! Show the people of Thaqif the right path and make them come to us.”
The Messenger of God had such a vast feeling of mercy and such a big ocean of compassion that he did not want even his fiercest enemies to be destroyed; on the contrary, he wanted them to live with the light of Islam and belief. He asked his Lord to do it.
Returning to Jirana
After the Messenger of God lifted the siege, he left Taif together with the mujahids for the place called Jirana, where the booty obtained in Hunayn and Awtas was kept.
Suraka b. Jushum Becomes a Muslim
While the Messenger of God and his Companions were going to Jirana from Taif, they noticed someone approaching them. The Muslims wanted to stop him because they did not know him. They even wanted to harass him lest he should be someone with evil intentions. They asked him, “Where are you going? What do you want to do?”
When he realized that the Muslims would not let him approach the Prophet, he held the writing written by Hazrat Abu Bakr for him during the Migration between two of his fingers and shouted by showing it: “O Messenger of God! This is what you wrote for me. I am Suraka b. Jushum.”
The Prophet recognized him. He said, “Today is the day to keep my promise and to do you a favor.” Then he called out to the Muslims, “Let him approach me.”
When Suraka went to the presence of the Prophet, he uttered kalima ash-shahada and became a Muslim.
Suraka later said,
“I asked the Messenger of God, ‘O Messenger of God! Some camels at large come close to my pools that I fill with water for my camels. Will I have rewards if I give water to them, too?’ The Messenger of God said, ‘Yes... There is reward for giving water to any being that has lungs.’ I did not ask anything else. I returned to my tribe. I separated the zakah for my goods and sent it to the Messenger of God (pbuh).”
The Booty and the Captives
The Prophet proceeded and reached Jirana.
The booty and the captives obtained by the mujahids during the fighting were quite a lot. The number of the women and children held captive was about six thousand.
The booty that they obtained consisted of twenty four thousand camels, forty thousand sheep and four thousand uqiyyas of silver.
The Messenger of God did not start to distribute the captives among the mujahids in case Hawazins came and became Muslims. Meanwhile, he sent a Companion to Makkah o bring clothes for the captives; he clothed all of them.
Though the Prophet waited for more than ten nights, Hawazins did not come; so, he distributed the captives among the Muslims.
Hawazin Delegates Arrive
The captives had just been distributed among the mujahids when Hawazin delegates arrived. They said they had become Muslims and that the people in their land had become Muslims.
Halima, the foster mother of the Messenger of God belonged to the tribe of Hawazins. It was a tribe that looked after the Prophet when he was an infant. They mentioned it and asked the Muslims to treat them well; they also demanded their goods and the captives.
The Messenger of God said, to them, “I postponed distributing the booty and the captives for a long time in case you came. However, you came too late. I distributed the captives among the mujahids. It is very difficult for me to return them to you.”
After this talk, the Prophet offered them to choose one of them: If they wanted, they would prefer to receive their goods or women and children back.
Hawazins preferred their women and children.
Thereupon, the Prophet said, “I am returning the captives that were my share and the shares of Sons of Abdulmuttalib.” Then he said to them, “After I lead the noon prayer, stand up and say, ‘We want the Messenger of God to intercede with the Muslims for us and the Muslims to intercede with the Messenger of God for us.’ I will repeat that I have waived my share and I will ask the Muslims to waive their shares.”
When the Prophet led the noon prayer, Hawazins stood up as the Prophet had advised them and asked the Messenger of God and the Muslims to return the captives.
The Messenger of God declared loudly in the presence of the Muslims that he waived his shares and the shares of Sons of Abdulmuttalib. When the muhajirs and Ansar heard it, they waived their shares.
Thus, thanks to the two sentences uttered by the Messenger of God, about six thousand women and children held as captives were released at once.
This event is interesting because it shows both the vast compassion and mercy of the Prophet and the Muslims’ absolute loyalty and obedience.
Malik b. Awf Becomes a Muslim
After the Messenger of God returned the women and children to Hawazins, he asked, “What is Malik b. Awf doing?”
Hawazin delegates said, “He escaped and took refuge in the Castle of Taif. Now, he is together with the people of Thaqif.”
Thereupon, the Prophet said, “Go and tell him that if he becomes a Muslim and comes here, I will return him his family and give him one hundred camels.”
When the Hawazin delegates told him what the Prophet said, Malik came to the presence of the Messenger of God and became a Muslim. The Messenger of God surrendered him his goods and his family as he had promised; he also gave him one hundred camels. Apart from giving him one hundred camels, the Messenger of God gratified him by appointing him as the administrator of the Muslims in his tribe.
Affected by the grant of the Prophet, who conquered hearts through his nice attitudes, sweet words, grants and compliments, Malik b. Awf said, “I have neither seen nor heard anyone like Muhammad so far. When he is asked to grant something, he grants more than he is asked. If you ask him, he will tell you about the events that will take place tomorrow.”
Malik b. Awf, who had prepared a great army against the Muslims about a month ago, became a Muslim and entered the service of Islam.
Distribution of the Booty
After the captives were returned to their owners, the Messenger of God was going to start to distribute the booty.
Meanwhile, it was seen that some Bedouins disturbed the Prophet and pulled his garment by saying, “O Messenger of God! Distribute the booty of camels and sheep among us.” The Bedouins went so far that the Prophet had to lean back to a tree. Thereupon, the Messenger of God said, “Do you think I will not distribute the booty that God granted among you? By God, if the booty was as much as the number of the trees of Tihaman, I would distribute them among you without fear and stinginess.” Then, he picked a camel hair and held it between his fingers and showed it to them. He said, “O people! By God, apart from the one-fifth, there is nothing, not even something like this camel hair, that I have from the booty. And the one-fifth is spent on you when it is necessary.” After that, he had the booty items counted and distributed everybody their share.
Grants to the Muallafa al-Qulub
In the Islamic army in Jirana, there were about two thousand people who had just become Muslims on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and some notables of Makkah that had not become Muslims yet. The Prophet used a new method in order to strengthen the belief of the new Muslims and to gain over the hearts of people who had not become Muslims yet.
As it is known, the Prophet had the right to use one-fifth of the bounty. He could spend this one-fifth for necessary things and people.
Due to the purpose mentioned above, he gave abundantly from the one-fifth to the new Muslims and the notables of the Quraysh in order to soften their hearts.
He gave Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Qurayshis, his sons Yazid and Muawiya one hundred camels each and forty uqiyyas of silver each. Thus, Abu Sufyan and his sons received three hundred camels and one hundred and twenty uqiyyas of silver totally. Abu Sufyan, who was received such great generosity and grants said, “May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! You are so generous and charitable. When we fought against you, you fought so nicely. When we made peace, you made peace so nicely. May God reward you with good things.” Thus, he expressed the generosity and philanthropy of the Prophet.
Besides, the Messenger of God granted two hundred camels to some of the notables of the Quraysh and fifty camels to other notables each.
Safwan b. Umayya Becomes a Muslim
Safwan b. Umayya was one of the people who opposed and acted against the Prophet and Muslims severely. He was one of the people that had been ordered to be killed wherever they were seen on the day of the conquest of Makkah. However, when he took refuge in the Prophet, who was like an ocean of compassion, he was forgiven. He asked for a period of two months to become a Muslim. The Prophet gave him four months.
He also joined the Islamic army.
While the Messenger of God was checking the booty in Jirana, he spotted Safwan, who had not become a Muslim yet. He was staring at the valley full of camels and sheep.
The blessed eyes of the Messenger of God noticed this careful look and senses what he was thinking about. He said,
“Abu Wahb! Did you like the valley a lot?”
Safwan said, “Yes...”
Thereupon, the Prophet said, “Then, the valley belongs to you with all the things in it.”
Safwan was astonished; he could not believe his ears. After waiting for a while in astonishment due to the grants and generosity of the Prophet, who never said no to the requests of people, Safwan said, “The heart of nobody except a prophet can be so pure, good and generous.” He stated that his heart had been conquered.
Safwan was affected by the attraction of the light of Islam and the sun of the prophethood. He uttered kalima ash-shahada there and became a Muslim.
Thus, Safwan b. Umayya, who was the enemy of Islam for years and who was given permission for a period of four months to become a Muslim, embraced Islam at the end of the first month.
Safwan, who beautified his Islam through good deeds, later stated the following about the effect made by that generosity:
“The Messenger of God was the person that I hated the most among the people until he granted me the valley. However, after his grant, he became the most beloved person for me.”
This incident is an example showing clearly how skilled the Messenger of God was at knowing people and treating them accordingly. Sometimes one compliment of his, sometimes a sweet word, sometimes a smile, a nice act and sometimes a grant was enough to gain over people. Only this characteristic of his is a topic that can be researched. When this research is made, it will be seen that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) determined the rules and principles of making friends and gaining over the hearts of people more than fourteen centuries ago uniquely through his acts, attitudes and words.
To be able to make people loyal to you with one look, sign, word, smile or act is a characteristic of the Prophet that needs to be learned by the humanity.
The Objection of the Companions
Some Muslims who did not know the reason behind this act of the Prophet that aimed to affect the spirits of the people who had not become Muslims yet or who had just become Muslims felt disturbed by this act. They thought those people were preferred over them and that they were regarded superior. However, the Messenger of God did not do so with such thoughts.
As a matter of fact, when he was granting the people whose hearts he wanted to gain over (muallafa al-qulub), Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, one of the Companions, went to his presence and said, “O Messenger of God! You gave people like Uyayna b. Hisn one hundred camels each instead of people like Juayl b. Suraka.”
The Messenger of God realized the reason of the opposition very well. Juayl was really poor in terms of money and goods but he was very rich in terms of belief. The Messenger of God knew that it was the reason of opposition; so, he answered Sa’d as follows:
“By God, if the earth was full of people like Uyayna and Aqra, Juayl would be better and more virtuous than them. However, I am giving them abundantly to make them like Islam and belief. I refer Juayl to his Islam and the rewards prepared for him in the hereafter.”
Some People from Ansar Talk Critically
What distressed the Prophet was what he heard from some Madinah Muslims. In fact, the Prophet had expressed his loyalty and love about them as follows: “My life is together with your life; my death is together with your life.”
The Messenger of God was granting abundantly to the people who had been fierce enemies of Islam and the Muslims until yesterday, who had not made a sacrifice for the religion and who had not undergone any troubles for the religion. That was what made the Companions think about it. They felt distressed by the act of the Prophet because they had not realized the real wisdom behind the act of the Prophet and they showed their distress by their attitudes. Some of them even uttered unpleasant words.
Sa’d b. Ubada told the Prophet about the distress and discontent of some Ansar. Thereupon, the Prophet summoned Ansar and addressed them as follows: “O Ansar! I heard that you uttered some words that you should not have uttered. You said this and that.”
Upon the words of the Prophet, some Ansar apologized; they said, “O Messenger of God! We did not say so; some of our young people spoke like that.”
Despite their apology, the Messenger of God continued speaking: “O Ansar! Did I not come to you when you were in the wrong path? Did God not grant you guidance through me? Did God not make you rich when you were poor through me? You were enemies of one another. Did God not soften your hearts and unite you?”
Ansar said, “Yes, O Messenger of God! You found us in darkness; we attained light thanks to you. You found us near a hole of fire; we got rid of it thanks to you. You found us in aberration; we attained the true path thanks to you. We accepted God as Lord, Islam as the religion and Muhammad (pbuh) as the Prophet. The rights and bounties of God and His Messenger on us are superior to everything. We are grateful to God and His Messenger. O Messenger of God! Do whatever you wish.”
Despite this, the Messenger of God continued speaking. He did not want any anxiety or resentment to remain in the hearts. He added,
“O Ansar! If you had wished, you could have said this and it would have been true: ‘You came to us when you were rejected by others and we confirmed you. You came to us when you were left alone and we helped you. You had been deported but we looked after you like our souls.’ Yes, if you had said so, I would have confirmed you.”
After this conversation, the Messenger of God expressed what he meant to say through the following laconic sentences:
“O Ansar! Do you not want to return to your land with the Messenger of God while some people leave with the goods, camels and sheep that they have obtained?”
The Muslims of Madinah answered this question by shouting, “Yes, O Messenger of God! We do.”
Upon this answer, the Prophet ended his speech, which changed the situation altogether, as follows:
“I swear by God, in whose hand of power is the existence of Muhammad that, if it were not for the virtue of the Migration, I would want to be a member of Ansar!
O God! Show mercy on Ansar, their children and the children of their children!”
Upon these sincere and loving words of the Messenger of God, the Muslims of Madinah sarted to cry sobbingly; their beards got wet due to the tears coming down.
They made their final decision. They said, “We consent to the Messenger of God as our share of the booty even if we do not receive anything else.”
A unique share of the booty!
God Almighty granted His beloved Messenger such unexceptional persuasive ability. On the one hand, he affected the spirits of his fierce enemies and attracted them to Islam through his words; on the other hand, he eliminated all of the resentment of his friends through one speech.
From Jirana to Makkah
There were twelve days left for the month of Dhulqada to end.
When the Messenger of God was in Jirana, he performed prayers in the mosque there; he went to the mosque again, performed prayers, prayed and entered ihram for umra. Then, he left Jirana and entered Makkah at night with his Companions. The Prophet uttered talbiya during the journey; when he saw the Kaaba, he stopped uttering talbiya. In the morning, he circumambulated the Kaaba with his Companions. Then, he performed sa’y between Safa and Marwa. After the seventh sa’y, he cut his hair near Marwa.
The Prophet did not sacrifice an animal during this umra.
Returning to Madinah
The Messenger of God wanted to return to Madinah.
He appointed Attab b. Asid as the governor of Makkah again. He ordered Muadh b. Jabal to stay there so that he will tell people about Islam and teach the Quran.
Then, he set off from makkah. He reached Madinah a few days before the end of the month of Dhulqada.
Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 125.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 125; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 133.
Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 125.
Atika, one of the great-grandmothers of the Prophet was from Thaqif.
Waqidi, Maghazi, Vol. 3, p. 928.
Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, Vol. 2, p. 158.
Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 3, p. 80.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 158-159.
Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 932.
Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 81.
Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 81.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 127; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 133-134.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 159.
Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 936.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 131; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 159.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 131; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 152.
One uqiyya is 1283 grams.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 152.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 154.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 153; Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4. p. 131.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 132; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 4, p. 327.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 133; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 135.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 134; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 136.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 134.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 135; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 136.
Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 84.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 136-138; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 152-153.
Ibn Abdi’l-Berr, al-Istiab, Vol. 3, p. 720; Ibn Athir, Usdu’l Ghaba, Vol. 3, p. 24.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 449.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 139; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 246.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 140-141; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 76, 157, 201; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 138.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 142; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 76, Vol. 4, p. 42; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 69; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 138.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 142-143; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 154; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 77, 188; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 69; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 138.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 154.