How many days did it take to create Heavens and Earth?
Say: Is it that ye Deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. (Fussilat 9)
He set on the (earth) mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance). (Fussilat 10)
So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of knowledge. (Fussilat 12)
When God Almighty willed to create the universe, He produced an indefinite amount of energy by showing His endless power; that energy condensed in time and turned to gas. Then it condensed again and turned to its present solid state. The earth formed in two geological eras and then the sources there were determined; it reached its present state by forming in four geological periods eras based on the plan. The word yawm (day) in the verse means a long period whose beginning and end is not definitely known (...) The skies formed seven layers together with the earth in seven long periods. They were all in the state of gas. It took them two periods to concentrate and solidify.
According to the analysis of the first sentence, the meaning is He created the earth in two days. When the earth was created, there was no “day” in the sense we know yet; so, day means time, that is, in two periods; Allah knows the best. One of them is the day when the sky was separated from the earth as it is stated in this verse: " Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder? " (al-Anbiya, 21/30), and the other is when the crust of the earth was started to be placed in the form of a cream layer as it is stated in this verse: “And it is He Who spread out the earth." (ar-Ra'd, 13/3). According to the second analysis, the meaning is He created the earth in two days. In this case, it is not mentioned in how many days the earth was created but its state in two days after it was created is mentioned; it means the two solstices that divide the year into two. The earth was created in a form to cycle between those two periods.
He pressed onto it; the mountains nail the crust of the earth to its base. That "waw" is used for the beginning; it does not refer to the verb because there is an interval. He brought about abundance in it. He produced good things, and sources of abundance like water sources, mines plants and animals with their power to be born and die. He ordained their sustenance in it; that is, He determined the amounts of rain and other things that plants and animals needed in order to live and arranged them in the form of earth. He did all of them in four days. Including the previous two, it is four days; there are two meanings in it like the others. One is the creation of the mines and the mountains; the other is the creation of the plants and animals, which amounts to four with the previous two. The other is the state, which shows the four seasons; thus, the previous two are included here. In my opinion, this meaning here is more in the foreground and more appropriate in terms of the coherence of the expression. The bounties and sustenance of the earth grow in the four seasons every year. Their number, amount and shape form in them; therefore, attributing them to the verbs may express the same meaning. Then, in terms of that meaning, this sentence becomes clear: four days equally for all researchers because all of the sustenance of those that seek sustenance grows in those four seasons; even if the sustenance is not equal, the days are equal. The number of the four seasons for each of them is four. It may be thought to mean those who ask about it.
Then, the skies are dealt with and it is stated that they were completed to seven strong skies in two days. One of those two days is for the creation of matter and the other is for the formation of things, which form the two days of the six days stated in the chapter al-Araf. Or, one of them is before the creation of the earth and the other is after. The creation of some celestial bodies like the moon, Venus, Mercury, etc is after the creation of the earth.
In my opinion, it is probable that one of those two days is the world and the other is the hereafter. He made them strong and completed them. He gave each sky the command related to them in the form of revelation. He gave the angels in each sky the command of the events to take place there, which is included in the completion. Since the evidence of the power of the Creator has become manifest and appeared in the creation and completion of them, the subject of the sentence is transformed into the first person singular from the third person singular, and the following is stated: " We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars." (as-Saffat, 37/6) . And we have protected them. The devils cannot approach them. It is the determination of Allah, al-Aziz (the Mighty and Strong) and al-Alim (the Knower of All).
Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He established Himself on the Throne (of authority) … (al-Araf, 54)
An example of the harmony between the Quran and modern science is the issue of the age of the universe: Cosmologists calculated the age of the universe to be 16-17 billion years. It is stated in the Quran that the whole universe was created in 6 days. There is a surprising harmony between those figures that seem different at first sight. As a matter of fact, both of those figures related to the age of the universe are correct. That is, the universe was created in 6 days as it is stated in the Quran, and that period corresponds to 16-17 billion years in our perception of the time.
In 1915, Einstein put forward that time was relative and that the flow coefficient of time changed based on the place, the speed of the traveling person and the force of gravity at that time. It is seen that the duration of the creation of the universe stated in 7 different verses of the Quran is greatly parallel to the calculations of the scientists when the differences in the flow coefficient of time is considered. We can consider the 6 days mentioned in the Quran as 6 periods. When the relativity of time is taken into consideration, “day” expresses the 24-hour period only as perceived in the world under the circumstances of today. However, in a different place of the universe, at a different time and under a different condition, “day” is a much longer period of time. As a matter of fact, the word ayyam (days) in the phrase “6 days” (sittati ayyamin) also means era, period, duration apart from meaning days in the following verses: (as-Sajda, 4; Yunus, 3; Hud, 7; al-Furqan, 59; al-Hadid, 4; Qaf, 38; al-Araf, 54).
In the first periods of the universe, time flowed. Much faster than the pace that we are used to today. The reason is this: during the Big Bang, the universe had been condensed into a very small point. The expansion of the universe since that big bang and the tension in the volume of the universe expanded the borders of the universe to billions of light years away. As a matter of fact, the fact that the space has been tensioning since Big Bang has played an important role on the time of the universe.
The energy during the moment of Big Bang slowed down the flow of the time of the universe million by million times (1012). When the universe was created, the flow coefficient of the time of the universe, as it is perceived today, was a trillion times bigger, that is time flowed faster. Thus, during the time when we live a trillion minutes in the world, only one minute passes in terms of the time of the universe.
When the period of 6 days is calculated by taking the relativity of time into consideration, it corresponds to 6 trillion. It is because the time of the universe flows a trillion times faster than that of the world. The number of years corresponding to 6 trillion days is about 16,427 billion. That figure falls into the interval of the estimated age of the universe.
6.000.000.000.000 days / 365,25 = 16.427.104.723 years
On the other hand, each one of the 6 days of the creation corresponds to different time periods from one another – in terms of our perception of time. It is because of the fact that the flow coefficient of time decreases inversely proportional to the expansion of the universe. Every time the size of the universe doubled since Big Bang, the flow coefficient of time decreased in half. As the universe got bigger, the doubling speed of the universe slowed down increasingly. That expansion rate is a scientific reality that is explained in the textbooks “the Fundamentals of Physical Cosmology” and that is widely known all over the world. When we calculate each day of the creation in terms of the time of the world, the following state appears:
* When the moment that time started is taken into consideration, the 1st day (1st period) of the creation lasted 24 hours. However, that period corresponds to 8 billion years to the time as we perceive in the world.
* The 2nd day (2nd period) lasted 24 hours. However, that period lasted half as much as the 1st day, that is 4 billion years in terms of the time we perceive in the world.
* The 3rd day (3rd period) lasted half as much as the 2nd day, that is, 2 billion years.
* The 4th day (4th period) lasted 1 billion year.
* The 5th day (5th period) lasted 500 billion years.
* And the 6th day (6th period) lasted 250 billion years.
* Conclusion: The 6 days, that is, the 6 periods, of the creation lasted 15 billion 750 million years when they are added in terms of the time of the world. That figure is close to the estimations of today.
That conclusion is the reality found out by the science of the 21st century. Science has once again approved the truth expressed by the Quran 1400 years ago. That harmony between the Quran and science miraculously proves that the Quran is the revelation of Allah, Who knows everything and created everything.
- How should we understand this verse: “What is the life of this world but play and amusement?” and the following verse: “Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is between!”
- Why did Allah create the universe?
- His Kursi (chair or pulpit) extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. (Al-Baraqah Surah, 2:255) What does Kursi mean that reads in the verse?
- What is the original homeland of Hz. Adam? If it is Paradise, does Allah say, "I will create a vicegerent on earth"?
- Is there a contradiction between the verse: "the width whereof is as the width of Heaven and earth" (al-Hadid, 21), and the verse "a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth" (Aal-i Imran 133), which describe Paradise?