What are the characteristics of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Holy Books?
Although the holy books except the Quran were sometimes distorted by men, there is a big similarity between the names and characteristics of our Prophet (pbuh) in various versions of those books.
The Quran informs us that God Almighty sent apostles and prophets from time to time and sent down laws, commands or books to them. Based on that statement, the Quran mentions the pages of Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham), the Torah sent to Hazrat Musa (Moses), the Psalms sent to Hazrat Dawud (David) and the Gospel sent to Hazrat Eesa (Jesus). The term “zuhurul-awwalin” (the books of the previous people) may have referred to some books of Zoroastrians or Brahmans.
The signs in the ancient holy texts of Iran:
The religion of Iran is the oldest religion of the world after the religion of Hindu. Their holy texts were available in two sources called dasatir and zend-avesta. In Dasatir No 14, some principles belonging to the religion of Islam were mentioned and the following sentences heralding the advent of our Prophet (pbuh) exist: “When the level of ethics of the Iranians lower, a light will emerge in Arabia. His followers will exalt his throne, religion and everything. There was a building (it indicates the Kaaba) that had been constructed and there were a lot of idols to be eliminated in it. People will turn towards it and worship. His followers will conquer the cities of Iran, Taus and Balh and many wise people of Iran will join his followers.”
As it is clearly understood from the sentences above, the sun of Islam that will rise after centuries and its Prophet are described very clearly. It is written that the Prophet (pbuh) having the titles of “praised a lot”, “praised” and “mercy to the worlds” will eliminate the idols.
In Part 129 of Yasht 3, one of the parts of that book which still exists today, the same truths are expressed again and the person to eliminate the idols is mentioned as “mercy for everybody and the worlds”. As it is known, one of the names of our Prophet is “mercy to the worlds”.
The signs in the holy Hindu texts:
In Hindu holy texts like Paru 8, Khand 8, Adhya 8 ve Shalok 5-8, our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned as follows: “A spiritual educator who is a mellacha (someone who speaks a foreign language or a member of a foreign country) will come with his friends; his name will be Muhammad. After his advent, the rajah will bathe in the rivers of Punjab and Ganga. He tells him: O you! The source of pride of human beings, the inhabitant of the Arab land. You brought together a great force to kill the devil.” (Prof. Dr. Muhammed Hamidullah, Kuran-ı Kerim Tefsiri)
It is very remarkable that the name of our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned exactly in the statement above. The phrase “the source of pride of human beings” means the same as the name of our Prophet, “the source of pride of the world”.
Buddha (Gautama Buddha) mentions a person who will honor the world after his death. That affectionate and kind-hearted person whose name is “matteya” in the Pali language, “maitreya” in Sanskrit and “armidia” in Burmese will call people to the right path. In that news that Buddha gave a long time ago, those names mean “mercy”. As it is known, in the 21st verse of Chapter 21, the following is stated: “And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds.”
In one of those texts, the following is stated: “Buddha said, “I am not the first Buddha (guide) that came to the world and I will not be the last. Another person will come to the world some time later. He is a holy and enlightened person with an extraordinary administrative ability. He will teach you the same eternal truths that I have taught you.” Ananda asked: “How will he be known?” Buddha answered: “He will be known as maitreya (mercy).”
In Pali and Sanskrit texts, the name of the exalted person that will come in the future is given as Maho, Maha and Metta. The first two names mean “exalted enlightener” and the last one means kind, helpful. Both of them are the attributes of our Prophet. Besides, it will be seen clearly that the names of Mohamet and Mahamet that are mentioned in some other holy texts are formed from the words maha and metta.
Let us continue our search in the Torah, Gospel and Psalms. The most detailed research about the issue is the one carried out by Husayn Jisri. That Syrian scholar, whose parents are Shiite, found out 114 signs about our Prophet (pbuh) from those holy books and published them in his book, Risala al-Hamidiya, which was also translated into Turkish.
Even in the Torah, which is the most distorted text among the previous holy texts, the following signs regarding our Prophet (pbuh) exist: “He saw two riders, one on a donkey, and the other on a camel. He listened carefully.” (Ishaya xxı, 7)
Here, the first one of the two riders that the Prophet Ishaya was informed about was Hazrat Eesa (Jesus) because he went to Jerusalem on a donkey. It is clear that what is meant by the person on the camel is our Prophet (pbuh). Our Prophet was on a camel when he entered Madinah.
By the way, we should state that the words faraklit or paraklit (pericletos) have been maintained in the translations of the Gospel but in the latest translation they have been changed to “muazzi” (comforter) in Arabic translations and to “teselli verici” (consoler) in Turkish translations.
In the pages of Hazrat Shuayb (Jethro) the name of our Prophet is mentioned as mushaffah, which exactly means “Muhammad”. The equivalent of the word munhamanna in the Torah is Muhammad too (as it is known, Muhammad means a person who has been praised repeatedly). In addition, the name of our Prophet is mostly used as Ahyad in the Torah and Ahmad in the Gospel.
We end the issue with a hadith: “My name is Muhammad in the Quran, Ahmad in the Gospel and Ahyad in the Torah.”
Here is the related part quoted from The Letters by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi translated from the Turkish "Mektubat" by Şükran Vahide (Sözler Neşriyat)
The wonders that took place before his prophetic mission, but which were related to it, are called irhasat, and these too were indications and proofs of his prophethood. They were of three kinds:
THE FIRST KIND
This kind of irhasat comprises the tidings of Muhammad’s (PBUH) prophethood given by the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms of David, and the scriptures revealed to other prophets, as stated by the Qur’an. Indeed, since those Books are revealed scriptures and those who brought them were prophets, it is necessary and certain that they should have mentioned the one who would supersede their religions, change the shape of the universe, and illuminate half the earth with the light he brought. Is it possible that those scriptures, which foretold insignificant events, would not speak of the most important phenomenon of humanity, the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH)? Yes, since they would certainly speak of it, they would either denounce it as a falsehood and so save their religions from destruction and their books from abrogation, or they would affirm it, and through that man of truth, save their religions from superstition and corruption. Now, both friend and foe agree that there is no sign of any such denouncement in the scriptures, in which case there must be affirmation. And since there is certain affirmation, and since there is a definite reason and fundamental cause for such affirmation, we too shall demonstrate through three categorical proofs the existence of this affirmation:
F i r s t P r o o f: God’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) says to them through the tongue of the Qur’an: “Your scriptures describe and confirm me; they confirm me in the things I say.” He challenges them with verses such as,
Say, “Bring the Torah and read it, if you are men of truth!” 292
Say, “Come, let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves; then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of God on those who lie!” 293
Despite his continuously taunting them with verses such as these, no Jewish scholar or Christian priest was able to show he had made any error. If they had been able to, those very numerous and very obdurate and jealous unbelievers and dissembling Jews and the whole world of unbelief would have proclaimed it everywhere. The Prophet also said:
“Either you find any error of mine, or I shall fight you until I destroy you!” And they chose war and wretchedness. That means they could not find any error. For if they had, they would have been saved from all that.
S e c o n d P r o o f: The words of the Torah, the Bible, and the Psalms do not have the miraculousness of those of the Qur’an. They have also been translated again and again, and a great many alien words have become intermingled with them. Also, the words of commentators and their false interpretations have been confused with their verses. In addition, the distortions of the ignorant and the hostile have been incorporated into them. In these ways, the corruptions and alterations have multiplied in those Books. In fact, Shaykh Rahmat Allah al-Hindi, the well-known scholar, proved to Jewish and Christian scholars and priests thousands of corruptions in them, and silenced them. Nevertheless, despite these corruptions, in our times the celebrated Husayn Jisri (May God have mercy on him) extracted one hundred and ten indications to the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH), and included them in his Risalat al-Hamidiya. This was translated into Turkish by the late Ismail Hakki of Manastir; whoever wishes may refer to it.
Also, many Jewish and Christian scholars acknowledged and admitted that the attributes of Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) were written in their Books. The famous Roman Emperor Heraclius, who was a non-Muslim himself, said: “Jesus foretold Muham-mad’s coming.” 294
Also, another Roman ruler called Muqawqis, the Governor of Egypt, and celebrated Jewish scholars and leaders such as Ibn Suriya, Zubayr b. Batiya, Ibn Akhtab and his brother Ka‘b b. Asad, although remaining non-Muslim, admitted: “He is described in our Books.” 295
Also, some of the well-known Jewish scholars and Christian priests gave up their obduracy on seeing Muhammad’s (PBUH) attributes as described in the above-mentioned books, and believed in him. They then pointed out these references to other Jewish and Christian scholars, and convinced them. Among them were the famous ‘Abd Allah b. Salam, Wahb b. Munabbih, Abu Yasir, the two sons of Sa‘ya, Asid and Tha‘laba, and Shamul. 296 The latter lived at the time of Tubba‘, the ruler of Yemen. Shamul became a believer before Muhammad’s prophetic mission and without ever seeing him, just as Tubba‘ did. 297 While the guest of the Bani Nadir before the prophetic mission, a gnostic called Ibn al-Hayyaban declared: “A prophet will soon appear, and this is the place to which he will emigrate.” He died there. Later, when that tribe was at war with God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace), Asid and Tha‘laba came forward and cried out to the tribe: “By God, he is the one Ibn al-Hayyaban promised would come.” 298 But they did not heed him, and paid the penalty.
Also, many of the Jewish scholars like, Ibn Yasin, Mikhayriq, and Ka‘b al-Ahbar, became believers on seeing the prophetic attributes in their Books, and silenced those who did not accept faith. 299
Also, the famous Christian scholar and monk, Bahira, who was mentioned above: 300 God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was twelve years old when he went to Damascus with his uncle, and it was for his sake that Bahira invited the Quraysh. For he had seen a cloud casting its shadow on the travelling caravan. When it continued to do so, he realized that the one he was seeking had remained with the caravan, and had sent someone to fetch him. He told Abu Talib: “Return to Makkah! The Jews are exceedingly jealous and will resort to treachery, for his attributes are described in the Torah.”
Also, Nestor the Abyssinian, and the ruler of that country, the Negus, came to believe on seeing Muhammad’s attributes written in their Books. 301
Also, a well-known Christian scholar called Daghatr became a believer on seeing the description of the Prophet, and was martyred when he proclaimed this among the Byzantines. 302
Also, from the Christian leaders, Harith b. Abi Shumar al-Ghasani and the prominent rulers and religious leaders of Damascus such as Sahib al-Ilya, Heraclius, Ibn Natur and al-Jarud, entered the fold of Islam, after seeing the Prophet’s description in their Books. Of them, only Heraclius concealed his belief for the sake of worldly rule. 303
Also, like these, Salman al-Farsi had also formerly been a Christian. He searched for the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) after seeing his description. 304
Also, a famous scholar called Tamim, and the well-known Abyssinian ruler, the Negus, and the Abyssinian Christians, and the priests of Najran, all unanimously declared that they had seen the Prophet’s description in their Books, and had come to believe in him. 305
T h e T h i r d P r o o f : Here, as examples, we shall point out from the Gospel, the Torah, and the Psalms, a few instances of verses concerning our Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace).
First: In the Psalms, there is the following verse:
O God, send to us after the period between prophets one who will establish an exemplary model.306
Here, “One who will establish an exemplary model” refers to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
A verse from the Gospels says:
The Messiah said: “I am leaving for my father and your father, so that He may send you the Paraclete,” 307
that is, Ahmad Muhammad.
A second verse from the Gospels:
I ask from my Lord for the Paraclete that he may abide with you forever. 308
Paraclete, meaning ‘the distinguisher of good from evil,’ is the name of our Prophet in those Books.
A verse from the Torah says:
Verily God told Abraham that Hagar -the mother of Isma‘il- will bear children. There will emerge from her sons one whose hand will be above all, and the hands of all will be opened to him in reverence. 309
Another verse from the Torah:
And He said to Moses: “O Moses, verily I shall send them a prophet like you, from the sons of their brothers [the children of Isma‘il]; I shall place My word in his mouth, and shall punish whoever does not accept the words of the one who will speak in My name.” 310
A third verse from the Torah:
Moses said: “O Lord! Verily I have found in the Torah the best of Communities that will emerge for the benefit of humanity, that will enjoin good and forbid wrong, and that will believe in God. Let it be my Community!” God said: “That is the Community of Muhammad.” 311
A REMINDER: In those books, the name of Muhammad is given in Syriac form, such as Mushaffah, Munhamanna, Himyata, and names meaning Muhammad in Hebrew. Otherwise the name of Muhammad is explicitly mentioned only in a few places, which were also altered by the jealous Jews. 312
A verse from the Psalms of David states:
O David! A prophet will appear after you, named Ahmad Muhammad; he will be truthful, and he will be a chief, and his Community will be forgiven. 313
One of the Seven ‘Abd Allah’s, ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As, who made extensive studies of the earlier scriptures, and ‘Abd Allah b. Salam, who was the earliest to accept Islam from among the famous Jewish scholars, and the famous scholar Ka‘b al-Ahbar from among the Children of Israel, all pointed out in the Torah, which was not then corrupted to its present extent, the following verse, which after addressing Moses, then addresses the Prophet-yet-to-come:
O Prophet, verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, a warner and a protection for the unlettered. You are My bondsman, and I have named you ‘the Reliant on God.’ You shall not be harsh, stern, and clamorous in the market places, nor shall you requite evil with evil, but instead pardon and forgive. God shall not take you unto Himself until you straighten a crooked people by causing them to say, “No god but God.” 314
Another verse from the Torah:
Muhammad is God’s Messenger, his birthplace is Makkah, he will emigrate to Tayba, his rule will be in Damascus, and his Community will constantly praise God. 315
In this verse, a Syriac word meaning Muhammad is mentioned for the word Muhammad.
Here is another verse from the Torah:
You are My bondsman and messenger, and I have named you ‘Reliant on God,’ 316
which is addressed to a prophet who is to come after Moses, and is from the progeny of Isma‘il, the brother of Isaac.
In the following verse from the Torah,
My chosen bondsman is not harsh or stern, 317
the meaning of Mukhtar (chosen) is the same as ‘Mustafa,’ a name of Muhammad.
In several places in the Gospels, a prophet who will come after Jesus is referred to as “the Master of the World.” He is described as:
He will have with him a staff of iron with which he will fight, as will his people. 318
This verse indicates that a prophet will come with a sword, charged with waging jihad. Qadib min hadid (literally, staff of iron) means sword. And so will be his community. In agreement with the Biblical verse mentioned above, and referring to it as well as some other verses, the following Qur’anic verse at the end of Sura al-Fath also states that his community, like him, will be commanded to wage jihad:
And their similitude in the Gospel is like a seed that sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, filling the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the unbelievers with rage at them. 319
In the Thirty-Third Chapter 320 of the Fifth Book of the Torah, there is the following verse:
The Lord came from Sinai, rose up unto us from Sa‘ir, and shined forth from Mount Paran. 321
In this verse, with the phrase “the Lord came from Sinai,” the prophethood of Moses is mentioned; with the phrase “rose up unto us from Sa‘ir” (Sa‘ir being a mountain near Damascus), the prophethood of Jesus is indicated. And the phrase “He shined forth from Mount Paran (the Paran Mountains being the mountains of Hijaz), gives tidings of the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH), all will agree. Moreover, confirming the sentence, “This is their similitude in the Torah,” 322 is the following verse of the Torah concerning the Companions of the Prophet who would shine forth from the Paran Mountains:
The flags of the blessed ones will be with him, and they will be on his right. 323
In this verse, the Companions are described as “the blessed ones,” that is, his Companions are blessed, righteous men, the beloved ones of God.
In the Forty-Second Chapter of the Book of Isaiah, there are the following verses:
See My servant, whom I uphold; My Chosen One, in whom I delight. He will reveal justice to the nations of the world.... He will encourage the fainthearted, those tempted to despair. He will see full justice given to all who have been wronged. He will not be satisfied until truth and righteousness prevail throughout the earth, nor until even distant lands beyond the seas have put their trust in him. 324
Here, the verses explicitly describe Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), the prophet at the end of time.
In the Fourth Chapter of the Book of Micah, are the following verses:
But in the last days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the House of God will be the most renowned one of all the mountains of the world, praised by all nations; people from all over the world will make pilgrimage there. “Come,” they will say to one another, “let us go up to the mountain of God and the House of God.” 325
These verses obviously describe the most blessed mountain in the world, Mount ‘Arafat, and the worship and proclamations of “God is Most Great!” of those making the Hajj, who will flock there from all climes, and the Community of Muhammad, famous for the Divine Mercy it will receive.
In the Seventy-Second Chapter of the Psalms, there are the following verses:
And he will reign from sea to sea,
And from the River to the ends of the earth.
The kings of Yemen and the Islands
All will bring their gifts.
And to him all the kings will prostrate themselves,
All the nations will serve him.
And he will live,
And on his behalf prayer will be made constantly,
All day long he will be praised.
His name will prove to be to time indefinite,
It will continue as long as the sun.
All will be blessed in him,
All nations will praise him. 326
These verses describe the Glory of the World, the Prophet Muhammad (Upon be blessings and peace) in most clear fashion. Apart from Muhammad the Arabian, what prophet has come since David (Upon whom be peace) who has spread his religion from East to West, made kings pay tribute, and brought rulers to submission as though prostrating; to whom every day one fifth of mankind offer benedictions and prayers, and whose lights have irradiated from Madinah? Has there been any other?
Again, the Turkish translation of John’s Gospel, Chapter Fourteen verse twenty, 327 says:
I shall not speak with you for much longer, for the ruler of the world is coming, and I am nothing compared with him.
Thus, the title Ruler of the World means Glory of the World. And the title of Glory of the World is one of the most famous of Muhammad the Arabian’s (Upon whom be blessings and peace) titles.
Again in John’s Gospel, Chapter Sixteen verse seven, it says:
But I am telling you the truth. My departure is but for your benefit. For, unless I depart, the Comforter will not come. 328
Now see, who other than Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) is the Ruler of the World and true consoler of men? Yes, the Glory of the World is he, and he is the one who will save transitory man from eternal extinction and thus comforts him.
Again, the eighth verse of Chapter Sixteen in John’s Gospel:
When he comes, he will give the world convincing evidence concerning its sin, its righteousness, and its judgement. 329
Who other than Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has turned the world’s wrongdoing into righteousness, saved men from sin and associating partners with God, and transformed politics and world rule?
Also from the Gospel of John, the eleventh verse of Chapter Sixteen:
There is deliverance from judgement, for the Ruler of this World has already been judged. 330
Here “the Ruler of the World” is certainly Ahmad Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), for he is known as the Master of Humanity. 331
Also, in John’s Gospel, the thirteenth verse of Chapter Twelve: 332
But when he, the Spirit of Truth, comes, he will guide you all to the truth, for he will not be presenting his own ideas, but will be passing onto you what he has heard. He will tell you about the future. 333
This verse is explicit. Who apart from Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has called all men to the truth, whose every statement was based on Revelation, has spoken what he had heard from Gabriel, and informed man in detail about the resurrection of the dead and the Hereafter? Who other than he could do this?
Also, the Books of other prophets include names in Syriac and Hebrew that correspond to the various names of the Prophet (PBUH), such as Muhammad, Ahmad, Mukhtar. For example, in the scriptures of the Prophet Shu‘ayb, his name is Mushaffah, 334 and means ‘Muhammad.’ In the Torah, he is mentioned as Munhamanna, which again means ‘Muhammad,’ and as Himyata, 335 which means ‘the Prophet of al-Haram.’ In the Psalms, he is called al-Mukhtar. 336 Again in the Torah, the name is al-Hatam al-Khatam. 337 Both in the Torah and in the Psalms,
it is Muqim al-Sunna, 338 in the scriptures of Abraham and in the Torah, he is mentioned as Mazmaz, 339 and again in the Torah, as Ahyad.
God’s Most Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) himself said: “In the Qur’an, my name is Muhammad, in the Bible, Ahmad, and in the Torah, Ahyad.” 340 In fact, the Bible refers to him as “The one with the sword and the staff.” 341 Indeed, the greatest of the prophets who wielded the sword, and was charged with fighting in God’s way together with his community, was God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace). The Gospels also describe him as “wearing a crown.” 342 Yes, this title is particular to God’s Messenger, for “crown” means turban, for in former days, it was the Arabs who as a people, all wore the turban and headband. This definitely therefore refers to God’s Messenger.
The term Paraclete in the Gospel, or Faraqlit, is defined in Biblical interpretation as “the one who distinguishes truth from falsehood.” 343 It is therefore the name of one who in the future will lead people to the truth.
In one place in the Gospels, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) says: “I am going so that the Lord of the World may come.” 344 Who other than the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has come after Jesus who will be the Ruler of the World, distinguish and separate truth from falsehood, and guide mankind in place of Jesus? That is to say, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) was constantly giving his community the good news: Another will come; no need will remain for me. I am his forerunner and herald. Confirming this is the following verse of the Qur’an:
And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of God unto you, confirming that which was revealed before me in the Torah and bringing the good tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad [the Praised One].” 345
Yes, in the Gospels, Jesus gave the glad tidings many times, that the greatest leader of mankind would come. He is mentioned with various names, in, of course, Syriac and Hebrew-which scholars have seen, which bear the meaning of Ahmad, Muhammad, and the Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood. That is to say, on many occasions Jesus (Upon whom be peace) told of the coming of Ahmad (Upon whom be blessings and peace). 346
Q u e s t i o n : Why is it that while the other prophets foretell the coming of Muhammad (PBUH), Jesus (PUH) does so more fully and in the form of good news?
T h e A n s w e r : Because Ahmad (Upon whom be blessings and peace) defended Jesus (Upon whom be peace) against the fearsome denials and slander of the Jews, and saved his religion from corruption. Furthermore, in the face of the burdensome Shari‘a of the Children of Israel, who did not recognize Jesus, he came with an elevated Shari‘a which was easy, all-encompassing, and completed the deficiencies of Jesus’ Shari‘a. For these reasons, Jesus often gave the good news, the Ruler of the World will come!
Now it is clear that in the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms of David, and in the scriptures of other prophets, there are numerous discussions of a prophet who is to come at a later time, many verses mentioning him. Just as we pointed out examples of these, showing that he is mentioned in these Books under various names. Who, other than Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), the Prophet of the end of time, could it be that these scriptures of the prophets speak of so repeatedly in their verses, and with such importance?
THE SECOND KIND
The signs of prophethood that were manifested by way of irhasat also include those tidings of his coming given before his prophetic mission in that time between prophets by the soothsayers and certain people known as saints and gnostics at that time; they published their claims and passed them down to subsequent generations in their poetry. These are numerous, and we shall mention some that are well-known, and have been accepted and narrated by the scholars of history and the Prophet’s life.
First: One of the rulers of Yemen, called Tubba‘, saw descriptions of God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) in former scriptures, and believed in him. He announced this by means of a poem,
which went like this:
I bear witness to Ahmad, for he is a Messenger from God, the Creator of man;
Were I to live long enough to see him, I would be a minister and a cousin to him.. 347
That is, I would have been like ‘Ali.
Second: Quss b. Sa‘ida was the most renowned and most significant orator of the Arabs, a monotheist, and man of enlightened mind. Before Muhammad’s prophetic mission, he announced his messengership with these lines:
Ahmad shall be sent forth amongst us, the best prophet ever sent;
God’s blessings be upon him, whenever a riding party sets out amidst cries! 348
Third: Ka‘b b. Lu’ayy, one of the forefathers of the Prophet, announced Muhammad’s prophethood by way of inspiration as follows:
Suddenly, Muhammad the Prophet will appear,
Giving tidings most true. 349
Fourth: Sayf b. Dhi-Yazan, one of the rulers of Yemen, read descriptions of God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) in the old scriptures, and believing in him, longed to see him. When ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Muhammad’s grandfather, went to Yemen with some of the Quraysh, Sayf summoned them and said: “A child will be born in Hijaz, with a mark between his shoulders resembling a seal. He will be the leader of all humanity.” Then, in private he told ‘Abd al-Muttalib: “You are his grandfather,” 350 foretelling his prophethood in a wondrous way.
Fifth: Waraqa b. Nawfal was a cousin of Khadija. When the first Revelation came, the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was deeply shaken. Khadija described the event to the well-known Waraqa b. Nawfal, who told her to send him to him. God’s Messenger went to Waraqa and told him how the Revelation had come. Waraqa
Said: “Good news, O Muhammad! I testify that you are the awaited prophet who was foretold by Jesus.” 351 That is, Do not worry! It was truly the coming of Revelation.
Sixth: Before the prophetic mission, a gnostic called Athkalan al-Himyari asked the Quraysh when he saw them: “Is there anyone among you who claims prophethood?” They replied in the negative. He again asked them at the start of his mission, and this time their reply was affirmative. Athkalan said: “The world is awaiting him!” 352
Seventh: Ibn al-‘Ala, a famous Christian scholar, told of God’s Messenger (PBUH) before his mission, never having seen him. He later came, saw the Messenger, and said: “By the One Who sent you in truth, I found your description in the Gospels, and the Son of Mary gave glad tidings of your coming.” 353
293. Qur’an, 3:61.
294. Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, ‘Uyun al-Athar ii, 26; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364.
295. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra ii, 139; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 366; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iv, 80, 81, 272; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa iii, 362; Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi 403-4; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 85.
296. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 366; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iv, 80-1; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa iii, 361-2; Waqidi, al-Maghazi 405-4; Ibn Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa iii, 361-2; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 79; ii, 492.
297. Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 367; ii, 526; vi, 240-9; al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal xi, 401; xii, 390-408; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739-43; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id viii, 240.
298. Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 80-1; iv, 31; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 137; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 82; Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa, i, 87.
299. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa i, 87; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 87-8, 135; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa 161-3; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 78-9.
300. See, page 169 fn. 176. Also: Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 24; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 158.
301. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744.
302. See, page 202, fn. 297.
303. Bukhari, Bad’ al-Wahy 6; Shahadat 28; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 121, 150-1; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 198; Tabarani, al-Mu’jam al-Kabir iii, 2108; Ibn ‘Adiyy, al-Kamil fi’l-Du’afa iii, 1094; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 101-2.
304. al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, vii, 222; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 82; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 310-6; Musnad v, 437; Ibn Hisham, Sirat al-Nabi i, 233; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa no: 213; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iii, 604; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 670; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 144; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 258-64.
305. Musnad i, 461; Abu Da’ud, Jana’iz 58; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-6; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 240; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 163.
307. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 352; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 250; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 201.
308. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye i, 255; Gospel of John, 14:16.
309. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105-6; Genesis, Chap. 16.
310. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 86; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 347.
311. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 746; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 107-18.
312. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112-3; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189.
313. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Kandahlawi, Hayat al-Sahaba i, 18; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 326; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 122.
314. Bukhari, Buyu’ 5; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346; Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Kandahlawi, Hayat al-Sahaba i, 17; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 326; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105, 135; al-‘Ajurri, al-Shari’a 444, 452; Qastalani, Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 192; Isaiah, chap. 42.
315. Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346-51; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 116; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 72.
316. See, fn. 314. (This is part of the same verse.)
317. Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105, 119; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
318. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99, 114.
319. Qur’an, 48:29
320. Deuteronomy, 33:2.
321. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 348; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113.
322. Qur’an, 48:29.
323. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 348; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113; Deuteronomy, 33:2.
324. Isaiah, 42:1-4, 10.
325. Micah, 4:1-2.
326. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 91-104; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 410; Psalms, 72:8, 10, 11, 15-17.
327. 14:30. (Tr.)
328. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99.
329. Âli al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99.
330. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 95-7; al-Anwar al-Muhammadiyya.
331. Yes, he is such a lord and ruler that in most centuries for one thousand three hundred and fifty years he has had at least three hundred and fifty million followers and subjects, who have obeyed his commands in complete submission, and every day renew their allegiance to him by calling down God’s blessings on him.
332. 16:13. (Tr.)
333. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743.
334. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112; Qastalani, Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189.
335. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346, 354; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112-3.
336. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
337. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 114.
338. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 115.
339. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
340. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 108, 112; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
341. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 114; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
342. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113, 114; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
343. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112.
344. See, page 208, fn. 328.
345. Qur’an, 61:6.
346. At the site of the tomb of Sham’un al-Safa, the famous traveller Evliya Chelebi came across the following verses from the Gospels, written on gazelle hide: “A youth from the progeny of Abraham is to be a prophet. He will not be a liar; his birthplace will be Makkah; he will come with piety; his blessed name is Ahmad Muhammad;• those who obey him will prosper in this world and the next.”
347. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 166; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 388; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 138.
348. Suyuti, al-Fath al-Kabir ii, 133; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 230; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; Tabarani, al-Majmu’ al-Kabir xii, 1254; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 101; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 105.
349. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 244; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 89-90.
350. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 328; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 343; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 388; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 95-6; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 187.
351. Bukhari, Bad’ al-Wahy 3; Anbiya’ 21; Ta’bir 1; Musnad (Tahqiq: Ahmad Shakir) iv, 304 no: 2846; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; ‘Ajurri, al-Shari’a 443; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 217.
352. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 742; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 140.
353. ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 121, 208.
- How many types of Divine Books are there? What are their names?
- What does belief in books express?
- Were there any signs about the coming of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in other monotheistic books?
- Could you please define the characteristics of the interpretation methodology of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)? What are the characteristics, content and activities on the subject of interpretation of His ummah (Community of Muslim Believers)?
- How should take the first command of the Holy Qur’an, which is “Read”? In fact, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was illiterate?