After rebelling against Allah, the devil asked for a respite and he was granted respite till the Day of Resurrection. Actually, that wish of him is also a punishment for himself. He made a wish which causes his torment in the Hereafter to increase as he is the cause of all evils perpetrated until the Doomsday. That way, he preferred a life full of shame and abasement to death.
His being granted respite:
The Satan, who despaired of Divine mercy and was left completely alone because of his haughtiness as regards the command of prostrating before Adam, peace be upon him, started to doubt about his life, too. He implored Allah, saying: “-Grant me respite till the Day when they are raised from the dead.” (The Qur'an, Al-A'raf, 7:14). What is meant with the Day when they are raised from the dead is the time when The Trumpet will be blown for the second time (The Qur'an, Az-Zumar, 39:68; Al-Mutaffifin, 83:6). By asking for such a respite, he knew that after the Resurrection, there would be no more death and he assumed that he would thus be saved from death. That wish for immortality was answered as “You shall be among the ones granted respite.” (The Qur'an, Al-A'raf, 7:15) with the condition “Until the Day of the appointed time known.” (The Qur'an, Al-Hijr, 15:38). And what is meant with the appointed time is the time when The Trumpet is blown for the first time (The Qur'an, An-Naml, 27:87). Thereby, he preferred a life full of shame and abasement to death. And that was his real downfall.
As is understood from above, not only did Satan not deny Allah and the Resurrection after death, but he also knew that Adam would have generations, and after living on the earth for some time, they would die and one day they would be resurrected. So, his unbelief does not arise from his denial of Allah and the Hereafter, but is about not carrying out what is necessitated by the command and is a kind of rebellion. (Yazir, the work mentioned, III, 2135).
His duty: The Satan, who was granted respite until a certain time, did not try the way of asking for forgiveness by accepting his fault and repenting. On the contrary, he became even more ferocious. He chose for himself an aim with which he could busy himself till the Day of Resurrection. And that aim was the human being who was the reason why he was driven away from Divine mercy. He was conquered by feelings of avenge. In a daring fashion, he explained those feelings of his to Allah: “My Lord! Because You have allowed me to rebel and go astray, I will indeed deck out to be appealing to them on the earth (the worldly, material dimension of human existence and the path of error), and I will surely cause them all to rebel and go astray.” (The Qur'an, Al-Hijr, 15:39)
As is seen, Allah Almighty did not immediately drive the Satan away from His presence because of his rebellion, He firstly gave him the permission to talk and granted him the opportunity to understand his mistake and to repent of it, but when he insisted on his obstinacy and rebellion, Allah drove him off from the rank where he was then and limited the plans he devised this way: “My servants-you shall have no authority over any of them, unless it be such as follow you being rebellious (against Me, as you are).” (The Qur'an, Al-Hijr, 15:42). “Get out from there, disgraced and disowned! Those of them that follow you, surely I will fill Hell with you all!” (The Qur'an, Al-A'raf, 7:18). So, whoever obeys the Satan will be his follower and will face the same end he will face. As is understood from those verses, the Satan was not given any power with which he can affect the sincere servants of Allah. Therefore, one who is against the Satan in his thoughts, lifestyle and disposition, will keep the quality of being “Allah's servant”. And the person who has a quality of the Satan then bears a trait of the Satan. (Yazir, the work mentioned, 111, 2138)
The wisdom in his creation: Our scholars have said that there are certain pearls of wisdom and aims in the creation of the Satan.
a- Allah created things with their opposites so that they can be distinguished from one another and that the differences between them can be perceived by humans. Similarly, the Satan was created in opposition to the existence of the angels, who are among the purest and noblest creatures and who advise what is good and just.
b- Another pearl of wisdom in the Satan's creation is the necessity for a being on which the names of Allah which refer to His greatness are reflected, such as Al-Qahhar (The All Compelling Subduer), Al-Muntaqim (The Avenger), Al-Adl (The Utterly Just), The One with Severe Punishment, The Fast Reckoner, Al-Hafiz (The Preserver), Ar-Rafi‘e (The Exalter), Al-Mu‘ezz (The Giver of Honor), Al-Mudhell (The Giver of Dishonor). For those names are the names of perfection which necessitate a being on which they will reflect. If the human and the jinn were in the nature of the angel, the work and result of those names could not realize.
c- If the Satan were not created, then it would not be possible for Allah's names and attributes of perfection which include such points as protection, forgiveness, mercy, covering and forgiving sins, to be reflected. Our Prophet articulates that concisely: “If you did not commit sins, Allah would certainly remove you, and would bring a people whose individuals commit sins and pray for forgiveness and to whom Allah would show forgiveness.” (Muslim, Tawba, 2; Tirmidhi, Jannat, 2; Daavat, 98; Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 289, II, 309).
d- If the Satan were not created, it would not be possible to speak of worship and obedience to Allah. For certain deeds can be defined as worship, good and righteous only through the existence of their opposites. And it is the Satan who shows the way to humans in evil deeds. (Seyyid Sâbık, the work mentioned, p. 155-156; A. Saim Kılavuz, Anahatlarıyla İslâm Akâidi ve Kelâm'a Giriş, Istanbul 1987, p. 196)