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The Conquest of Makkah


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(8th year of the Migration, the month of Ramadan, Friday / AD 630 January)

Makkah: The city in which the Kaaba, the first symbol of the oneness on the earth, is located... “The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka.”[1]Its holiness and being a means of guidance originate from the fact that it is embodied evidence of divine oneness. Hazrat Adam, the first man and the first prophet, its first builder, built it for that purpose. In the course of time, the building started to disappear but its foundations were sound. Hazrat Ibrahim, who was called Abu’l-Anbiya [Father of the Prophets], rebuilt the Kaaba with his son, Hazrat Ismail, upon the order of God; thus, the Kaaba became an embodied symbol of the belief of oneness again.   

However, the most honorable and virtuous building of the earth was under the control of the Qurayshi polytheists, who lived far away from the belief of oneness and who even tried to eliminate it and the people who had that belief. The building was full of idols, which was contrary to the purpose of its construction.

The polytheists, who were the fierce enemy of the belief of oneness and Muslims, who were the representatives of this belief, committed all kinds of sins there.

It was necessary to urgently eliminate this situation, which infuriated God, offended the spirits of Hazrat Adam (pbuh) and Hazrat  Ibrahim and hurt the hearts and consciences of all Muslims. It was necessary to save this holy worshipping place and the city of Makkah, in which this worshipping place was located, from the dirty hands of the polytheists.

The Messenger of God was thinking about it and was seeking a way of realizing this aim.

The circumstances were not suitable for a long time because the number of the Muslims was few and they were weak. Besides, Madinah could have been attacked by the enemy any time.

It was necessary for Islam to develop, for the Muslims to increase and to become strong in order to realize this aim; otherwise, an attempt to this end could have failed.  

The Prophet, who knew to evaluate the time and place very well regarding an attempt, was waiting patiently for God Almighty to grant suitable circumstances for the realization of this aim. 

Finally, in the 8th year of the Migration, Islam spread around with its magnificence. On the one hand, the Jews of Khaybar and around Khaybar, who were among the fiercest enemies of Islam, were made subject to Islam; on the other hand, the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, which was a great conquest and victory had been signed and one of the greatest states  of that time, the Byzantine Empire had been intimidated by the Battle of Muta.   

They all showed that Islam and Muslims had become a great force that could not be stopped.

It was time for this lofty and holy aim to be realized and God Almighty had granted all of the necessary circumstances.

However, there was a drawback to it: The Treaty of Hudaybiya, which had been signed between the Muslims and the polytheists. According to this treaty, the Muslims and the polytheists would not fight for ten years and would not violate the treaty.

The Messenger of God, who always kept his promise, was not thinking of breaking his promise and attacking Makkah even if it was for this holy aim. 

The Apparent Reason

God Almighty, who penetrates into the finest points in our hearts and who knows all of the desires of our hearts and answers them, knew the desire of his beloved Messenger, too. He had informed the Prophet two years ago that his desire would be realized.   

God Almighty created a reason: One of the articles of the Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty gave the tribes other than the Qurayshi tribes the right to seek protection from either party.[2]As a realization of this right, the tribe of Khuzaa asked protection from the Messenger of God; they were given protection and they supported the Muslims. On the other hand, the tribe of Sons of Bakr accepted the protection of the polytheists and supported them.[3]

There was a long feud between these two tribes. Probably due to this enmity, when the people of Khuzaa, who were the allies of the grandfather of the Prophet, Abdulmuttalip, for a long time, supported the Messenger of God, they asked protection from the polytheists.

Those two tribes, which always fought each other before the light of prophethood started to shine in Makkah, fought each other less frequently thanks to the light of the prophethood. This state continued like that until the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah. However, after the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed, they started to disturb each other again. They started to seek pretexts to cause a conflict.   

Sons of Bakr Attack the Khuzaa Tribe

Once, a person from the tribe of Sons of Bakr attempted to satirize and insult the Messenger of God through a poem. A young man from the Khuzaa tribe could not tolerate it and wounded him in the head. Sons of Bakr, who found out what had happened, used it as an excuse to attack the Khuzaa tribe.[4] Receiving some help from the Qurayshis, Sons of Bakr suddenly attacked the people of Khuzaa, who were staying near the water of Watir and who were protected from such an attack by the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah; they chased them into the center of Makkah. They even killed some people of the Khuzaa tribe near the Kaaba. Consequently, twenty-three people from the tribe of Khuzaa were killed.[5]

During the clash, the polytheists did not only give horses and weapons to the tribe of Sons of Bakr, some of the polytheists also fought together with them. However, they did it secretly because of their fear from the Prophet.[6] However, the people of Khuzaa recognized them.

The Qurayshi polytheists violated the Treaty of Hudaybiyah by doing so. However, they were worried and even scared that the Prophet would be informed about it. 

The Prophet is Informed about the Situation

Only three days passed after this incident.

Amr b. Salim of the Khuza tribe went to Madinah with forty people from his tribe and told the Prophet about what had happened; he asked help from the Prophet.[7]

The Prophet was very disturbed by the incident and he promised the delegation from the Khuzaa tribe that he would definitely help them and asked them to return to their land.[8]

The Qurayshi polytheists brought about a very dangerous situation by helping Sons of Bakr. They later realized that what they had done would cause great trouble for them but it was too late. 

... God made this incident an apparent reason to open the gates of Makkah to Muslims and to fly the flag of oneness over the Kaaba again.

Ultimatum Given to the Polytheists

The Messenger of God wanted the situation to become clearer. Therefore, he sent a letter like an ultimatum to the polytheists stating the following: 

“Either pay the blood money for the people of the tribe of Khuzaa that were killed or break your alliance with the tribe of Sons of Bakr. If you do not do either of them, know that you will be regarded to have violated the Treaty of Hudaybiyah; consequently, we will have to fight you.”

The Qurayshis Reject the Offers

The notables of the polytheists, who were very conceited, rejected the offers of the Prophet first and said that they would prepare for the war, acting upon their feelings and without thinking about the end of it. Thus, they confirmed that they had actually violated the treaty with their own words. However, when they started to think about it logically by leaving their feelings aside, they started to feel panicky and scared. As they thought about the consequences of their act, their faithless hearts started to fill with fear. They regretted having answered the envoy of the Messenger of God like that. They sent Abu Sufyan to make things right to Madinah. They said to him, “Go and renew the treaty and lengthen the period of cease-fire.”[9]

Abu Sufyan in Madinah

According to the instructions of the notables of the polytheists, Abu Sufyan, was going to talk to the Prophet and tell him that they changed their mind and was going to ask him to renew the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and even to lengthen it. However, it was no use crying over spilt milk; and the polytheists could not be successful because the Messenger of God told his friends before Abu Sufyan arrived in Madinah about the issue as follows:

“Abu Sufyan is about to come here in order to renew the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and to lengthen the period of cease-fire. However, he will not attain his desire and will return furiously.”[10]

Abu Sufyan and His Daughter

When Abu Sufyan arrived in Madinah, he went to visit his daughter Umm Habiba, one of the wives of the Prophet, before he went to the presence of the Prophet.

The father was not a believer yet and was the leader of the polytheists; the daughter was a wife of the Prophet. Abu Sufyan wanted to sit on the mattress of the Messenger of God but Umm Habiba did not let him sit on it. Abu Sufyan said, “O my daughter! I do not understand it. Are you sparing me from the mattress or the mattress from me?” Umm Habiba said, “This is the mattress of the Messenger of God (pbuh). You are a polytheist. I will not let anyone like you sit on the mattress of the Messenger of God”[11]

Yes, the respect and love for God and His messenger are superior to all kinds of respect and love. The respect for them cannot be replaced by respect for parents, especially respect to a polytheistic father; love for them cannot be abandoned for the love of others. What makes man attain endless bliss is sincere respect for God and His messenger and obedience to their commands and prohibitions.   

Upon this act of his daughter, Abu Sufyan expressed his anger by saying, “O my daughter! By God, you have changed a lot after you left me; you have evil deeds.”

Umm Habiba said, “No! God gave me Islam not evil deeds. However, you are still worshipping idols made of stones; they cannot hear or see.” Then, she added, “O my father! How come a notable of the Quraysh like you stays away from Islam?”

Abu Sufyan got angrier. He said, “Woe on you! I did not expect to hear those words from you. You want me to abandon what my ancestors had been worshipping and enter the religion of Muhammad; is that right?” Then, he left Umm Habiba furiously.[12]

Abu Sufyan Applies to the Prophet

Leaving her daughter, Umm Habiba, furiously, Abu Sufyan went straight to the Messenger of God. He said,

“O Muhammad! Renew the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah and lengthen the period of cease-fire.”

The Prophet asked, “O Abu Sufyan! Did you come here for this?”

Abu Sufyan, “Yes, I did.”

The Messenger of God said, “We still act in compliance with that treaty. Did you do anything to violate it?”

Abu Sufyan hesitated for a moment. He did not know what to say. Then, he plucked up the courage and talked as if nothing had happened, “God forbid! We did not do anything like that. However, we want to renew the treaty.”

The Messenger of God did not reply his offer and kept silent.[13]

Abu Sufyan realized that he had come to a dead end. He did not know how to go out of it.

When he did not receive any answer from the Messenger of God, he went to Abu Bakr. He repeated his request and asked Abu Bakr to mediate between him and the Messenger of God.

Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “It is not something that I can intervene. The Messenger of God knows about it. He will decide about it.”

Abu Sufyan said, “Then, take me under your protection and tell people about it.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr confirmed his loyalty to Messenger of God once more by saying, “The people who are under my protection are those who are under the protection of Messenger of God.”[14]

Hopelessly, Abu Sufyan applied to Hazrat Umar this time. He said to Umar, “Try to renew the treaty and mediate between the people.” 

Hazrat Umar, who was well known for his rage and severity against unbelievers, said, “It means you violated the treaty; is that right?” Then, he added, “If there is anything left from it, May God destroy it at once. I will never ask the Messenger of God to intercede about it. I will fight you even if I find nothing but a small ant. I will use that ant to fight you”[15]

Abu Sufyan Applies to Hazrat Uthman and Hazrat Ali

Abu Sufyan said to himself, “By God, I have never had a harder day than today.” Leaving Hazrat Umar, Abu Sufyan went straight to Hazrat  Uthman. He said, “O Uthman! You are the closest one in terms of relation to me among these people. Please renew this treaty and lengthen the cease-fire. Your friend will never reject you.”

Hazrat Uthman said, “The people who are under my protection are those who are under the protection of Messenger of God.”[16] Thus, he expressed that he would not help him. 

Abu Sufyan was very upset because he could not succeed. He applied to Hazrat Ali as the last resort. He said, “You are my closest relative. For the sake of this kinship, go to the Messenger of God and ask him to renew the treaty and lengthen the period of cease-fire.”

The answer of Hazrat Ali was no different than that of the other Companions. He said, “O Abu Sufyan! By God, when the Messenger of God decides to do something, he definitely does it. This is something that is up to the Messenger of God. I cannot do anything about it.”[17]

Thereupon, begging Hazrat Ali, Abu Sufyan said, “All right, o Ali! Give me some advice about it.”

Hazrat Ali said, “By God, I do not know anything that will help you regarding the issue. However, you are the leader of Sons of Kinana. Declare that you have taken both parties under your protection in order to reconcile them. Then, leave and go to your homeland.”

Abu Sufyan, who was frustrated and exhausted, liked Ali’s advice like a drowning man clutching at a straw. “Yes, you are right. I should do it.” Then, he left Hazrat Ali and went to the Masjid an-Nabawi.[18]

Abu Sufyan was spiritually tired and exhausted. He was upset because he could not fulfill his duty. He stood up in the mosque and said, “O people! Know that I have taken both parties under my protection in order to compromise them.” Then, he added timidly, “I do not think that Muhammad will reject my promise.” Then, he went to the Prophet hesitating and feeling tired; he said, “O Muhammad! I do not think that you will reject my promise of protection.”

The Prophet said, “O Abu Sufyan! You are stating it not me.”[19]

Abu Sufyan realized it very well. Feeling frustrated and hopeless because of failing to fulfill his duty, he mounted his camel and set off from Makkah to Madinah.[20]

Abu Sufyan is in Makkah

When Abu Sufyan arrived in Makkah, the Qurayshis asked him, “What did you do? Tell us.”

Feeling ashamed of being an unsuccessful envoy, Abu Sufyan narrated them what had happened in detail. 

The fear of the Qurayshi polytheists increased.

Preparation for the Conquest

The Messenger of God made his final decision: They would go on an expedition. However, he wanted to keep this decision, the expedition to Makkah, as a secret. It was a precaution taken by him. He did so because he did not want the enemy to make preparations and to force them to surrender without shedding much blood. He was appointed by God to convey the message of Islam to people not to eliminate them. If they were forced to surrender, many of them could accept Islam. Thus, they would be believers. Then, dominating the enemy instead of eliminating them was more appropriate for his lofty purpose. 

Therefore, the Messenger of God kept his purpose regarding the Expedition of Makkah as a secret. He only said to Hazrat Aisha, “Make preparations for my travelling.” The Prophet needed secrecy more than any other expeditions this time because he wanted to enter  Makkah, the holy city, without shedding any blood and to clear the Kaaba, the most honorable and virtuous building on the earth, from the idols without killing anybody. His following prayer expressed his intention clearly:  

“O God! Prevent the agents and informers of the Qurayshis from seeing and hearing until we reach their land suddenly. Let them see and hear me suddenly.”[21]

The Prophet sent Abu Qatada with a military unit to Izam valley in order to make people think that he was planning to attack Najd not the Qurayshi polytheists.[22] Thus, news that the Muslims would go to Najd not to Makkah would be spread; consequently, the polytheists would not feel worried and they would not make any preparations.

After taking these precautions, the Messenger of God told some of his Companions that an expedition to Makkah would be made and told them to make preparations.[23]

There were several tribes that had become Muslims around Madinah. The Prophet sent this message to them: “Those who believe in God and the hereafter should be ready in Madinah at the beginning of the month of Ramadan.”[24]

The tribes that heard the call of the Messenger of God started to come to Madinah at the beginning of Ramadan.

Setting off from Madinah

It was during the first days of the month of Ramadan.

Ten thousand mujahids, whose hearts were full of the love of the Messenger of God were ready in Madinah.[25] Seven hundred of them were Muhajirs. They had three hundred horses. The number of Ansar was four thousand. They had five hundred horses. The remaining mujahids were the Muslims from the tribes around. 

The Messenger of God appointed Abu Ruhm Kulthum b. Hu­sayn as his deputy in Madinah.[26]

The Islamic army was waiting for the command of movement from the Messenger of God. 

Message Sent to the Polytheists

The Islamic army was waiting ready for the movement.

Meanwhile, the Prophet summoned Hazrat Ali, Zubayr b. Awwam and Miq­dad b. Aswad and said to them,

“Go at once. When you arrive at the Khakh Orchard, you will find a woman on an animal; she has a letter. Take the letter from her and bring it to me.”[27]

Without asking the reason for this order, the three Companions went very quickly to the Khakh Orchard and found the woman.

They asked her, “Where is the letter?”

The woman said, “I have no letter or anything like that.”

Thereupon, they made the camel of the woman kneel down. They made the woman dismount the camel and searched her belongings but they could not find the letter.

Thereupon, Hazrat Ali drew his sword and said to the woman angrily,  “I swear by God that the Messenger of God (pbuh) never tells lies. Either give us the letter or we will make you take off your clothes and search you if necessary.”

The woman asked, “Are you not Muslims?”

The mujahids said, “Yes, we are Muslims but the Messenger of God (pbuh) told us that you had a letter.”

The woman realized that she had nothing else to do. She said to the mujahids, “Turn your faces away from me.”

When the Companions turned their faces away, she unbraided her hair and removed the letter; she gave it to Hazrat Ali.[28]

The Companions took the letter to the Messenger of God.

Everybody was surprised and astonished. The letter had been written by Hatib b. Abi Baltaa, who had joined the Battle of Badr, to the polytheists in order to inform them about the preparation of the Prophet.[29]

The Prophet summoned Hatib at once.

When Hatib arrived, the letter was read to him.

The Messenger of God asked, “Do you recognize this letter?”

He said, “Yes, I do.”

“Did you write it?”

Hatib did not deny writing it: “Yes, I did.”

The Prophet asked, “Why did you do it?”

Hatib explained, “O Messenger of God! Do not haste to decide about me. I am not from the Qurayshis. I have nobody to protect my family and belongings in Makkah like the other muhajirs. I did it so that I would make the notables of the Quraysh feel grateful to me and protect my family. I did not do it because I became a believer or exited my religion. By God, I maintain my belief in God and His Messenger.”[30]

The Prophet said, “You told the truth.” Then, he turned to his Companions and said, “He told you the truth. Do not say anything bad to him.”[31]

Hazrat Umar could not keep his temper and said, “O Messenger of God! Let me kill this hypocrite.”

The Messenger of God did not let him and said, “He joined the Battle of Badr. Who knows? Maybe God said about the people who took part in the Battle of Badr on the day of Badr, ‘Do whatever you want. I forgave you. Paradise is waiting for you; you deserve to enter Paradise’.” 

Thereupon, Hazrat Umar started to cry and said, “God and His Messenger know everything better.”[32]

Upon this incident, God Almighty sent down the following verse, warning the believers:

“O ye who believe! Take not My enemies and yours as friends (or protectors)― offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (on the contrary) driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in God your Lord! If ye have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure (take them not as friends), holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with them: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the Straight Path.”[33]

The Islamic Army is on the Way of Conquest

After the preparations were made, the Messenger of God ordered the army of ten thousand soldiers that beat like a single heart to move.

They left Madinah on the first days of Ramadan. Therefore, the Messenger of God and the mujahids were fasting.[34]

The weather was very hot. It was very tiring and difficult to walk in this heat. It was almost impossible to bear it. There could have been a clash any time; they could have been attacked. In fact, strength was necessary in a war. Fasting made the mujahids weak. However, they could not act on their own. Therefore, they were observing what the Messenger of God would do. Would they break the fast or would they go on fasting?  

When the Islamic army reached the place called Qudayd, the Prophet broke his fast after the afternoon prayer and ordered his Companions to do so.[35]

Meanwhile, a group of eight people and Abu Qatada, who had been sent to Najd, came and joined the army. Many Muslims living around came and joined the Islamic army.  

Abbas, who was coming from Makkah with his family, met the Islamic army in a place called Juhfa. The Prophet was very glad to see Abbas. He told Abbas to stay with him and send his belongings to Madinah. He said, “O Abbas! You are the last Muhajir.” The Prophet kept Abbas near him during the expedition.

Those Who Became Muslims on the Way

The Islamic army under the command of the Messenger of God was proceeding magnificently. Meanwhile, some people came and embraced Islam. They were Abu Sufyan b. Ha­rith, one of the cousins of the Prophet, and Abdullah b. Abi Umayya.[36]

The Messenger of God first did not want to meet them and turned his face away because they were very close friends with him before his prophethood but became his enemy when he was given the duty of prophethood; they harassed and insulted him. Abu Sufyan b. Ha­rith, who was a poet, used to satirize the Prophet and Muslims severely. Abdullah b. Abi Umayya, who was also a relative of the Prophet, used to disturb the Prophet with his words and acts.[37]

However, Umm Salama mediated and said to the Prophet that he should not turn his face away from them. Nevertheless, the Messenger of God did not want to accept them saying, “I do not need them.”

When Abu Sufyan b. Harith heard the words of the Messenger of God, he held the hand of his young son, Jafar, and said, “By God, if you do not let me enter your presence, I will hold my son’s hand and wander on the earth until he is destroyed.”

The heart of the Prophet, who was the symbol of compassion and mercy, could not put up with his words. He invited them to his presence and forgave them. Thus, they became Muslims.[38]

The Army is Deployed

The Prophet who stopped over at the place called Qudayd, arranged and deployed his army there; he gave standards and flags to the tribes and their standard-bearers and flag-bearers. Muhajirs had three flag-bearers: Hazrat  Ali, Hazrat Zubayr b. Awwam and Hazrat Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas... Ansar had twelve flag-bearers. Apart from them, Ashjas and Sulayms had one flag-bearer each. There were also fourteen standard-bearers in the Islamic army. Three of them belonged to Muzaynas, two to Aslams, four to Juhaynas, three to Sons of Ka’b and two to Sulayms.[39]

The Islamic Army is in Marruzzahran

Then, the Prophet stopped in Mar­ruz­zah­ran with his army.[40]

The secret strategy of the Prophet became very successful up to that time; Makkans did not hear anything about them.

Ten Thousand Fires

They arrived in the valley of Marruzzahran at night. The Prophet wanted to inform Makkan polytheists, who were unaware of their arrival up to that time, through a magnificent fire show; he ordered every mujahid to light a fire.[41]

Ten thousand fires were lit at the same time. This dazzling view illuminated Makkah. The polytheists were terrified. The Prophet, whom they had forced to migrate, was shining in the horizon of Makkah magnificently with ten thousand bright lights around him; he was rising in the horizon of Makkah to warm the spirits and hearts. The polytheists were astonished by this rise. This sun was not so bright two years ago; it did not have such strength and magnificence. How did it develop and grow so much and illuminate around? How did the light that they had wanted to extinguish become so bright as to make them dim? They could not understand the secret of this amazing development.  

The Qurayshi polytheists realized the situation only when they saw this dazzling view of ten thousand fires and understood that Makkah had been surrounded. 

The Prophet Says that he had Herded Sheep

The Islamic army had not left Marruzzahran yet.

The Messenger of God ordered some Companions to collect the fruits of the miswak (peelu) trees called arak and said, “I recommend you to collect the black ones because the black ones are the sweetest ones.”[42]

The Companions were surprised. They said, “O Messenger of God! Shepherds know the good and bad kinds of this fruit. Did you use to herd sheep?”

The Messenger of God said, “All prophets herded sheep. I used to herd my family’s (his uncle Abu Talib’s) sheep in Ajyad (a place near Makkah).”[43][44]

Abu Sufyan is in the Presence of the Prophet

Meanwhile, the polytheists were very scared and appointed Abu Sufyan, their leader, and a few people to find out about the situation.[45]

Abu Sufyan and his men left Makkah at night; while they were approaching the Muslim headquarters, they were captured by some mujahids. If Abbas had not come, they would have been beaten by the mujahids.   

Abbas took Abu Sufyan to the presence of the Prophet. Hazrat Umar followed them with his hand on the handle of his sword and said, “O Messenger of God! God gave us the opportunity to capture Abu Sufyan without any treaty and protection. Let me kill him.”

Abbas intervened: “O Messenger of God! He is under my protection.”

However, Hazrat  Umar did not give up; he repeated his demand.

Abbas said, “O Umar! That is enough. By God, if Abu Sufyan were from Sons of Adiyy b. Ka’b (the tribe of Hazrat Umar), you would not talk like that.” Hazrat Umar said angrily, “O Ab­bas! By God, if my father Khattab had been alive and had embraced Islam, I would not have been as happy as I was when you became a Muslim. I know that the Messenger of God (pbuh) would not have been as happy if my father had been alive and become a Muslim as he was when you became a Muslim”[46]

The Prophet ended this argument by saying, “O Abbas! Take Abu Sufyan to the place of settlement and bring him back to me in the morning.[47]

Abu Sufyan Becomes a Muslim

Abbas brought Abu Sufyan to the presence of the Messenger of God in the morning.

The Messenger of God said, “Is it not time for you to say ‘La ilaha illallah’?”

Abu Sufyan gave a poor answer: “What will I do with those idols? How shall I give up Lat and Uzza?”

Hazrat Umar was waiting behind the tent of the Prophet. When he heard the words of Abu Sufyan, he said furiously, “You are lucky that you are inside the tent; if you were outside, you could not say those words.”

Abu Sufyan said, “O Umar! Woe on you! You are harsh like your father. I did not come here to talk to you. I am here to talk to my cousin. Let me talk to him.” Abu Sufyan said to the Prophet, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! There is nobody superior to you in good manners, lenience and protecting relatives.” Then, he thought for a while; this thought made him approach the truth. He said, “By God, I think there is no god but Allah. If there were, they would have protected me and been beneficial to me.”[48]

The Prophet understood from his words that he accepted the truth: “La ilaha illallah”. This time, the Prophet asked, “O Abu Sufyan! Is it not time for you to say ‘Muhammadun Ra­su­lul­­lah’?”

Abu Sufyan hesitated for a moment. He had not been able to untangle the knot in him yet. There was a doubt that he did not know from where it was coming. He said, “O Muhammad! Give me some more time because there is something doubtful in my mind.”

Meanwhile, Abbas intervened:

“O Abu Sufyan! Woe on you! Come to your senses! Are you aware of what you are doing? Become a Muslim before you are killed. Say that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is God’s Messenger.”

Thereupon, Abu Sufyan uttered kalima ash-shahada and became a Muslim.[49]

The Instant Reward of his Belief

Abbas wanted the Messenger of God to give some privilege to Abu Sufyan. He said, “O Messenger of God! Abu Sufyan likes being superior and being praised. Will you give him a privilege that he will take pride in?

The Messenger of God said, “All right! Anyone that enters Abu Sufyan’s house will be regarded secured.”

Abu Sufyan said, “My house is not so big.” He wanted the Prophet to enlarge his grace.

This time, the Messenger of God said, “Anyone that enters the Kaaba will be regarded secured.”

Abu Sufyan did not regard it sufficient, either; he said, “The Kaaba is not so big.”

Then, the Prophet said, “Anyone that enters Masjid al-Haram will be regarded secured.”

Abu Sufyan wanted it to be enlarged; he said “Masjcid al-Haram is not so big.”

Thereupon, the Prophet enlarged his grace and said, “Anyone that closes his gate and stays in will be regarded secured”[50]

Abu Sufyan had nothing else to ask for; he expressed his satisfaction by saying,  “This is big enough.”[51]

Abu Sufyan Watches the Islamic Army

The Messenger of God did not let Abu Sufyan to leave and go to Makkah at once. He had belief but it was possible that he would be affected by the notables of the polytheists and make preparations against the Islamic army. It was necessary for Abu Sufyan to see the Islamic army so that he would have the view that the Qurayshi polytheists did not have the power and strength to resist the Islamic army. It was necessary for him to see the magnificent army so that he would try to dissuade those who would think of resisting the Islamic army, which would earn them nothing but would shed their blood. 

Therefore, the Prophet said to Abbas, “O Ab­bas! Take Abu Sufyan to the narrowest place of the valley, where the horses pass with difficulty so that he will see the magnificence of the army of God.”[52]

Upon this order of the Prophet, Abbas took Abu Sufyan to the narrowest place that overlooked the passage of the army. 

Abu Sufyan watched, in amazement and fear, the magnificent Islamic army that was passing in groups; he asked Abbas who they were one by one. Abbas gave him the necessary information. Abu Sufyan’s eyes were dazzled by the mujahids who were proceeding like luminous waves.

How did Muhammad, who managed to escape from them by the help of God when they decided to kill him, succeed in entering the hearts of tens of thousands of people and in making them obeying every order of him? Those who had fought together with them against Muhammad until yesterday became loyal to him, loved him so much, shared their feelings of distress and happiness with his feelings.  

Abu Sufyan was carefully looking for the Messenger of God among the troops that passed in groups. Whenever a troop passed, Abu Sufyan asked Abbas, “Did Muhammad (pbuh) pass?” He knew that his passage would be more magnificent.

Finally, the troop that the Messenger of God was in was coming fully armed. The Messenger of God was on his camel, Qaswa, with his magnificence, dignity and solemnity peculiar to him. Ansar and Muhajirs were around him. Sa’d b. Ubada, from Ansar, was carrying the standard. They were passing in front of Abu Sufyan making him shiver.  

Abu Sufyan asked curiously, “Subhanallah! O Abbas! Who are they?”

Abbas said, “The Messenger of God, Ansar and Muhajirs.”[53]

Abu Sufyan was more terrified and he shivered; he said, “What a great sultanate has been given to my cousin! I have never seen any king having so much sultanate!”

Abbas said, “It is not sultanate; it is prophethood.”

Abu Sufyan confirmed him, “Yes, it is prophethood.”[54]

Abu Sufyan realized that nobody including Makkans could resist this magnificent and luminous army, which, beat like a single heart, acted like a single hand and spoke out like a single voice. He said, “O Ab­bas! I have never seen such an army or congregation.”

After that, Abu Sufyan was allowed to go to Makkah so that he would inform the polytheists about the situation, he would prevent them from attempting to resist and he would advise them.[55]

Abu Sufyan in Makkah

Abu Sufyan returned to Makkah and declared that he had become a Muslim. He said, “O Qurayshis! There is Muhammad! He has come near us with an army that we cannot resist. Become Muslims so that you will attain salvation.”[56]Then, he shouted, “Whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house will be safe. Whoever stays in his house and closes his door will be safe. Whoever enters the Kaaba will be safe.”[57]

However, the notables of Quraysh and even his wife, Hind, insulted Abu Sufyan due to his words; and people like Safwan b. Umayya, Ikrima b. Abi Jahl even tried to provoke people into opposing the Messenger of God. However, people did not heed the words of those enthusiastic polytheists. Some of them went to their houses and others took shelter in the Kaaba as Abu Sufyan advised.[58]

Preparations to Enter Makkah

Before entering Makkah, the Islamic army gathered in Dhituwa valley. The joy of the Prophet and the Companions spread in waves. They gathered in Dhituwa Valley. There were smiles on their faces and joy in their hearts.

The Prophet was on his camel, Qaswa. He was praising and thanking God Almighty, who made him see this blessed and magnificent day.

He bent his head due to his modesty so much that the tip of his beard was about to touch the saddle of the camel.[59] With this attitude, he declared to everybody that the only being one can bow down before is God Almighty, the Creator of the universe; he also taught people that it was God who granted success and that what man needed to do was to work hard and make preparations.  

The Prophet Enters Makkah

The Prophet divided his army into four to enter Makkah:

The right wing... The commander of the right wing was Khalid b. Walid, known as “Sayfullah” (Sword of God). He was going to enter Makkah from the lower part of the city.

The left wing... The commander of the left wing was Zubayr b. Awwam. He was going to enter the city from the place called Kuda.

The third part of the army was under the command of Sa’d b. Ubada and it consisted of Ansar soldiers.

The fourth part of the army consisting of infantry was under the command of Abu Ubayda b. Jarrah. He was going to enter Makkah from the upper part of the city.[60]

The Prophet gave the commanders the following order:

“Do not fight or kill anyone unless you are attacked!”[61]

Some people were not included in this command. They were going to be killed wherever they were seen even if they took refuge under the covering of the Kaaba. They were the following people:

Ikrima b. Abi Jahl, Abdullah b. Sa’d b. Abi Sarh, Hab­bar b. Aswad b. Mut­talib, Huwayris b. Nuqayz, Miqyas b. Su­baba al-Laysi, Abdullah Hilal b. Hatal, Hind binti Utba b. Rabia, Sara the singer, Qu­rayna and Arnaba.[62]

The crimes that they committed were crimes that could not be forgiven: abjuration, excessive enmity against Muslims, torture, murder, satirizing the Messenger of God and Muslims insolently.

                                  

The Kabaa

 

The Wings of the Army Entering Makkah...

It was Friday, the thirteenth of the month of Ramadan, 8th year of the Migration. The sun had just risen.

The Prophet was on Qaswa, his camel. He had a black turban made in Yemen round his head. One end of his turban was hanging between his shoulders. He was entering the blessed city in glory and modesty. On the one hand, he was praising and thanking God because He showed him that day; on the other hand, he was reading the chapter of al-Fath, which had given the glad tidings that Makkah was going to be conquered. It was one of the happiest moments for him and for his Companions.

The tongues did not utter bitter words; they pronounced only nice words that conquered hearts. The faces were full of smiles.

The mujahids were not in ecstasy, caused by great victories and magnificent conquests. They controlled their hearts, souls and tongues.

Sa’d b. Ubada is Dismissed

Meanwhile, Sa’d b. Ubada, the commander of the third wing was affected by the dazzling victory involuntarily and said, “Today is the great day of fighting. Today it will be permissible to fight in the Kaaba.”[63]

The Messenger of God was informed about his statement. This statement was contrary to the aim and spirit of entering the Kaaba without fighting and shedding blood. He ordered that the standard be removed from him and given to Qays.[64]

Attack against the Wing of Khalid b. Walid

The Islamic army was entering Makkah in waves, without swinging their swords against anybody, and with respect as the Prophet had ordered.

However, meanwhile, the wing commanded by Khalid b. Walid was attacked. Some people like Ikrima b. Abi Jahl, Safwan b. Umayya and the people that they gathered attacked them.[65]

Khalid did not want to respond at first because the order of the Prophet was clear. However, when he saw that the polytheists increased the attack and threw a lot of arrows, he let his soldiers fight. The polytheists had to run away. Two mujhaids were martyred during the fight and thirteen polytheists were killed. The Messenger of God was informed about the situation. The Prophet summoned Khalid. When he learnt from Khalid that the polytheists attacked the Muslims and that the mujahids had to defend themselves, he said, “What God decreed and allowed is good.”[66]

No other clashes took place when the magnificent Islamic army consisting of ten thousand soldiers entered; the Muslims did not use their weapons.

Meanwhile, some of those who were decreed to be killed were captured and killed. Some of them had been Muslims but then exited Islam. Abdullah b. Hatal and Miq­yas b. Subaba were two of them. The other people that were killed were Harith b. Tu­lay­tila, Huwayris b. Nuqayz and Sara. They were the people who had tortured and insulted the Prophet when he was Makkah. The other polytheists that had been ordered to be killed ran away.

Declaration of Safety

As soon as the Prophet entered Makkah, he declared that people would be safe. He said,

“Whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house will be safe. Whoever leaves his weapons will be safe. Whoever enters his house and closes his door will be safe.”

Thereupon, some of the polytheists went to their own houses and others took refuge in the house of Abu Sufyan.

The Prophet in the Kaaba

The Islamic army, consisting of more than ten thousand soldiers, entered Makkah but Makkah was having a calm and peaceful day. Everybody was safe and secure.    

The Messenger of God was proceeding toward the Kaaba on his camel, Qaswa, Usama b. Zayd was also on the camel; Hazrat Abu Bakr was next to him and the muhajirs and Answar were around him. There was no change in him between the first day he declared his cause and the victory today. He was modest, humble, forgiving and merciful when he declared Islam and belief on his own; he was like that on the day when Makkah was conquered. He was generous, compassionate, modest and forgiving when he had affected few people; he was like that when he affected thousands of people; he did not lose any of his qualities. 

The Prophet entered the Kaaba with modesty and humbleness, feeling gratitude to God. The Muslims were entering the Kaaba in groups. When the Messenger of God uttered, “Allahu Akbar!”, the Muslims shouted all together, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” The horizons of Makkah resounded with this holy sound. The mountains and stones of this holy land replied this sound by uttering, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!”

Circumambulating the Kaaba

The Messenger of God started to circumambulate the Kaaba on his camel, Qaswa. The Companions followed him. At each lap of the circumambulation, the Prophet greeted Hajar al-Aswad by pointing at it with his stuff.[67] After the seventh lap of the circumambulation, he got off his camel. He went to the Station of Ibrahim and performed a two-rak’ah prayer there. Then, he went to Zamzam Well, drank some water and made wudu. After that, he went up to Safa Hill. He watched the Kaaba and the Muslims from there and thanked God, who made him see this magnificent day.

Meanwhile, some Muslims of Madinah felt a bit concerned. They said, “God Almighty enabled His Messenger to conquer his hometown. We wonder if he will he settle in Makkah?”

When the Messenger of God finished his prayer, he asked them what they were talking about.

They said, “Nothing. O Messenger of God!”

The Prophet repeated his question a few times and received the same reply. Then, he was informed by God what they were talking about.

Thereupon, he said, “I take refuge in God from what you were talking about. Know it very well that I will live with you and die with you.”[68]

When Ansar heard it, they gathered around the Prophet and tried to lenify him.

They said, “By God, we spoke like that due to our love toward God and His Messenger.”[69]

What Abu Sufyan and Fadala Think About

The Prophet and the Muslims were circumambulating the Kaaba.

Abu Sufyan was sitting at a corner of the Kaaba and thinking. Satan was trying to provoke him and giving him some delusions. Whenever the Messenger of God passed by him, Abu Sufyan thought, “I wonder if I can gather soldiers again and fight him?”

Just then, the Messenger of God approached and stood by him and said, “God will humiliate you again.”

When Abu Sufyan heard this statement, which flashed in his mind, it dawned on him. When he looked up, he saw the Prophet next to him. He was astonished and he shivered. Then, he asked forgiveness from God and said to the Prophet, “By God, you are Messenger of God!”[70]

Fadala b. Umayr was watching the Prophet in order to kill him during the circumambulation. Fadala had approached the Messenger of God when the Messenger of God suddenly turned and asked him, “Are you Fadala?”

Fadala, who was astonished, said, “Yes, O Messenger of God!”

The Prophet said, “What are you thinking about now?”

Fadala, “I am not thinking about anything; I am only mentioning the names of God.” The Messenger of God said, “O Fadala! Ask forgiveness from God!” Then, the Prophet put his hand on Fadala’s chest and prayed for him.

Upon this miracle, Fadala gave up his evil intention; his heart softened and his belief was strengthened. As it is seen, only one single luminous smile of the Messenger of God converted enmity to friendship and softened hard hearts.

Fadala described that moment as follows: “By God, when he removed his hand from my chest, there remained nobody lovelier and more beloved than him.”[71]

Pulling Down the Idols!

The Qurayshi polytheists had erected 360 idols around the Kaaba. Those idols had been pinned with leads.[72]

The Messenger of God, who had destroyed the idols in the minds, spirits and hearts with the belief of oneness he brought, and who had made  thousands of people turn around the light he brought like moths, started to clean the Kaaba from the idols.

He pointed at each idol with the stuff in his hand and read the following verse:

“Truth has (now) arrived, and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish.”[73] Each idol that was pointed at by the Prophet fell down. When the Prophet pointed at the face of the idol, it fell off face down. Thus, all of the idols in the Kaaba were demolished.[74]

Adhan in the Kaaba!

It was time for the noon prayer.

Upon the order of the Messenger of God, Bilal started to call the adhan on top of the Kaaba.   

There was joy and liveliness in the believing hearts; there was sorrow and downfall in the unbelieving hearts. Bilal, who was a slave and whom the polytheistshad made walk around the streets with the rope they tied around his neck and upon whom they had inflicted undreamt tortures, was declaring the oneness on the Kaaba with his sonorous voice by making the polytheists go mad from jealousy. It sounded as if the mountains and stones were uttering adhan in their own language together with Bilal.

The polytheists were very depressed by the exceptional view. Meanwhile, Abu Sufyan, Attab b. Asid and Harith Ibn Hisham, the leaders of the Quraysh were talking to one another. 

Attab said, “My father Asid was lucky because he did not witness this day.”

Insulting Bilal, Harith said, “Could Muhammad not find a person other than this black crow to appoint as a muez­zin?”

Abu Sufyan did not utter any negative words. He said,

“I am afraid I will not say anything. Even if there is no one else here, the sands and stones under our feet will inform him about what we say; and he will know all about it.”[75]

In fact, a few minutes later, the Messenger of God saw them and told them exactly what they were talking about. Then, Attab and Harith uttered kalima ash-shahada and accepted Islam.[76]

Abu Sufyan said, “O Messenger of God! Fortunately, I did not say anything.”

The Messenger of God smiled at him when he said so.

The incidents that took place affected the people of Makkah profoundly. They made the people of Makkah feel good things toward Islam and eliminate the hatred and enmity they felt against the Messenger of God and the Companions.   

The Prophet Enters the Kaaba

The Messenger of God sent somebody to Uthman b. Talha and asked for the key to the Kaaba. Though Uthman b. Talha’s mother urged him not to give the key to the Kaaba to the Prophet, Talha gave him the key.

The Messenger of God entered the Kaaba together with Bilal, Usama b. Zayd and Uthman b. Talha (may God be pleased with them).[77] He had ordered beforehand that the pictures and idols inside be removed; however, there were still some traces of them inside. He gave an order for those traces to be cleaned up.

After staying inside the Kaaba for a while, the Prophet came out. Meanwhile, almost all of the people of Makkah had gathered and were waiting for the decree of the Prophet about them.  

They wondered if the Messenger of God would throw tripe against their faces as they had done to him? Or, would he throw thorns on the road and make them walk on thorns? Or, would he torture and insult them? Would he put a rope around their necks and make them walk around the streets as they had done to some Companions? Would he torture them by making them lie down on scorching sand? Would he leave them hungry and thirsty? Or, would they be expelled?

No, Messenger of God, for whose sake the universe was created and who was sent as mercy for the realms, did not do any of them.

The Sermon of the Conquest

The Messenger of God stood by the door of the Kaaba. He was looking at the people with a smile on his face. After praising and thanking God, he recited the following sermon:

“There is no god but Allah; He has no partners.

He fulfilled His promise; He helped His slave and eliminated the enemies that gathered against him.

Know it well that all of the things that belong to the Era of Jahiliyya and that are regarded as means of pride like feuds, and conflicts regarding property have been abolished. 

All people were created out of Adam; and Adam was created out of dust.

“O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And God has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (al-Hujurat, 13) [78]

General amnesty

After his sermon, the Messenger of God asked the people there: “O Qurayshis! What do you think I will do to you?”

The Qurayshis said, “You are a generous and good brother. You are a generous and good nephew. We think you will do good things about us.”

Thereupon, the Messenger of God said,

“My situation and your situation are like what Joseph (Yusuf) said to his brothers.”[79]

“I am saying to you what Yusuf said to his brothers, ‘This day let no reproach be (cast) on you: God will forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy’” (Yusuf, 92).

“You can leave; you are free.”[80]

The best pardoning is to pardon when one has power; the best favor is the favor done in return for bad deeds. The best mercy is to show mercy on those who have not shown mercy on you. That was what the Messenger of God did because he was taught the following by God Almighty:

“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant.”[81]

At that moment, the Qurayshis were waiting in the presence of the Messenger of God lowering their heads and opening their hands. If he had wished, he would have killed all of them in return for the oppression and tortures they had inflicted upon him or he would have enslaved them; he could have confiscated their land and exiled them.

However, the Prophet, who was sent as mercy to the realms, did not do any of them. His only aim was to conquer people’s hearts. Thanks to this exceptional attitude of his, the Prophet served his aim very well. Upon his merciful behavior, pardoning and generosity, the Qurayshi polytheists abandoned their feelings of hatred and enmity; they embraced Islam.   

History witnessed such a magnificent spiritual and ideological revolution for the first time.

No Migration after the Conquest

It was on the day when Makkah was conquered.

Abdurrahman b. Safwan brought his father to the presence of the Messenger of God. He said,

“O Messenger of God! My father will pay allegiance to you and promise to migrate.”

The Messenger of God said, “There is no migration after the conquest of Makkah.”

Nevertheless, Abdurrahman wanted his father to benefit from the spiritual reward of being a muhajir. Therefore, he went to Hazrat Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. He asked Abbas, whom the Prophet loved a lot, to intercede for him.  

Abbas accepted Abdurrahman’s request and said to the Prophet, “O Messenger of God! You know my friendship with that person. His father came to you to pay allegiance by promising to migrate but you did not accept him.”

Makkah, which was the only remaining castle of the Arabian polytheists, had been conquered. Islam gained great strength through it. Therefore, the Prophet decided to end the institution of migration. That is why, he did not answer his uncle, whom he loved a lot positively. He said, “There is no allegiance for migration from now onward.”[82]

The migration that the Messenger of God ended was migration from a Muslim land, where Muslims could practice Islam freely to another Muslim land. That is, it was migration from Makkah and places near Makkah to Madinah when the Prophet was alive.[83]

The Second Sermon of the Prophet

On the second day of the conquest, after the noon prayer, the Messenger of God went up the ladder of the Kaaba, leaned back the Kaaba, praised God and addressed the people as follows: 

“O people!

There is no doubt that God rendered Makkah haram and untouchable on the day He created the skies and the earth, the sun and the moon; it will remain haram and untouchable until the Doomsday.

It is not permissible for a person who believes in God and the hereafter to shed blood and to cut trees within the boundaries of the Haram of Makkah. To shed blood in Makkah was not permissible before me and it will not be permissible after me, either.

Those who are listening to me here should convey what I say to those who are not here.

From his point onward, the family of a person who is killed will have two choices. They will want either the killer to be executed or blood money to be paid to them. 

There is no doubt that the most disrespectful, ferocious and fiercest person toward God Almighty among people is the one that kills a person or kills a person other than his murderer or that kills a person in order to take revenge remaining from the Era of Jahiliyya.  

A person cannot attribute himself to anybody except his father or a relative of his fathers. A child that is born belongs to the owner of the bed.

It is the duty of the plaintiff to bring evidence to prove his claim and it is the duty of the denier to swear an oath.

There is no Jahiliyya treaty in Islam or migration after the conquest.

A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim; all Muslims are brothers. Muslims are like a single hand against their enemies; they act in cooperation.

...

The bloods of Muslims are equal to one another. They try to fulfill their duties; the weakest of them try to fulfill even the most difficult ones.   

Know it very well that a believer, a Muslim cannot be killed for an unbeliever; nor those who have vows among them can be killed for unbelievers living in the land of unbelievers due to their vows.

There is no exchange marriage without dowers in Islam.

A man cannot marry the aunt of his wife while he is married with her.

It is not permissible for a woman to give away the goods of his husband without his permission.

A woman is not allowed to go on a three-day journey or a longer one without being accompanied by one of her mahram men.

Know it very well that a will is not necessary for inheritance. Members of different religion cannot be the inheritors of one another.

The diyah of one finger is ten camels. The diyah of a deep wound under which the bone is seen is five camels.  

No prayer can be performed after the morning prayer until the sun rises. No prayer can be performed after the afternoon prayer until the sun sets.

I prohibit you from fasting on two days: One of them is the day of eid al-adha, the other is the day of eid al-fitr.

I showed you the way that you can understand.”[84]

The Duties of Siqaya and Hijaba are left to the Same People

The Messenger of God stated during the Sermon of the Conquest that all of the transactions, tasks and cases of the Era of Jahiliyya except the services of Siqaya and Hijaba had been abolished.

Siqaya, which was the duty of giving water to hajjis, belonged to Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet.

Hijaba, which was the duty of serving the Kaaba, belonged to Uthman b. Talha.

Abbas applied to the Prophet and asked the Prophet to give both duties to him. However, the Messenger of God regarded it appropriate for him to maintain the duty of Siqaya only as he did it before the conquest. 

The Messenger of God was holding the key to the Kaaba. Many Muslims were expecting to have this honorable duty. However, the Prophet summoned Uthman b. Tal­ha and recited the following verse: “God doth command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; and when ye judge between people that ye judge with justice.” Then he said, “O Uthman! Here is your key. Take it. Today is the day of goodness and keeping promises.”[85]Then, he gave the key to the Kaaba to uthman.[86]

When Uthman b. Talha took the key and started to walk, the Messenger of God said to him, “Did what I once told you not happen?”

Uthman b. Talha remembered the incident and conversation between him and the Messenger of God and confirmed him:

“Yes, I witness that you are definitely the Messenger of God.”[87]

The incident and the conversation that the Prophet wanted to remind had taken place as follows:

It was before the Migration. Uthman b. Talha had not become a Muslim yet. Once the Prophet wanted to enter the Kaaba but Uthman b. Talha prevented him. Let alone preventing, Talha treated the Prophet rudely and unpleasantly. The Messenger of God did not get furious; as if he had seen the victory of Islam in the future, he calmly and leniently said, “O Uthman! One day will come, I hope you will find me having this key and the power of being able to give it to anybody I wish.” Uthman b. Talha said, “It means the Quraysh will have been eliminated then.” The Prophet said, “No, O Uthman! The Quraysh will attain the real power and honor then.”[88]

Makkans Pay Allegiance to the Prophet

After declaring a general amnesty, the Messenger of God went up the Safa Hill and accepted the allegiance of the Qurayshis. Many years ago, he had declared his prophethood there but he was rejected then. Now, he was accepting the allegiance to Islam from the same people on the same hill.

The allegiance of men to Islam and jihad witnessing that there was no god but Allah and that Muhammad (pbuh) was His Messenger was followed by the allegiance of women.

The Allegiance of Women

The women also paid allegiance to the Prophet by promising not to associate any partners with God, not to steal, not to kill their daughters, not to fornicate and to protect their chastity.”[89]

Among the leaders of the women who paid allegiance were famous women like Um­muhan, Hazrat Ali’s daughter, Umm Habiba, As b. Umayy’s daughter, Attab Ibn Asid’s aunts, Arwa, Abu As’ daughter Atika, Harith b. Hisham’s daughter and Abu Jahl’s son Ikrima’s wife Um­m Ha­kim and Khalid b. Walid’s sister Fatima. Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife, about whom the Messenger of God said, “Kill her wherever you see her”, was also among them. She disguised herself and joined the women so that she would not be recognized. She regretted what she had done against the Prophet and Muslims in the past. Despite what she had done, the Messenger of God forgave Hind, who had become a Muslim, and accepted her allegiance.   

Abu Quhafa Becomes a Muslim

A person who attains happiness wants his beloved ones to share the same happiness. This feeling is inherent in man.

Hazrat Abu Bakr attained this happiness by being a Muslim. However, his father Abu Quhafa was deprived of this happiness. His son wanted his father to share the same peace and happiness with him. Therefore, he held his father’s hand and took him to the Prophet. 

The respectable Prophet, who had expressed perfection of his ethics by saying “My Lord taught me good manners. That is why I have the best manners!”, became very sorry when he saw that Abu Bakr brought his old father to his presence. He showed his kindness and modesty by saying, “It would have been better if you had not brought him here; we would have visited him in his house.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr, who was educated by the Prophet, who was educated by divine manners, said, “O Messenger of God! It is more appropriate for him to visit you than your visiting him.”

After this short conversation, the Messenger of God put his blessed hands on the chest of Abu Quhafa and wiped his chest. Then, he said, “O Abu Quahafa! Become a Muslim.”

Abu Quahafa, who was addressed like that, became a Muslim at once and made his son happy.[90]

Those who had been Ordered to be Killed Become Muslims

When Utba bint Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, one of the fiercest enemies of Islam was forgiven, those who had been ordered to be killed wherever they were seen started to become hopeful. They also became Muslims and were forgiven by the Messenger of God. Among those people were  Ikrima b. Abi Jahl, Abdullah b. Abi Sarh (he had converted from Islam), Safwan b. Umayya, Suhayl b. Amr, Wahshi, who had murdered Hazrat Hamza, Abdullah b. Zabari, the poet, Harith b. Hisham and Anas b. Zunaym.

Is it possible to see another person who treated his most ferocious enemies so kindly, who showed mercy on them, forgave them, opened his heart to them and accepted them to his rank in the world history?

The Bedouin Shakes

Makkah had been conquered.

Faces and hearts were joyful. There was an exceptional atmosphere of festival in the city.

Meanwhile, a Bedouin approached the Prophet. He was shaking and shivering because of the nervousness and fear of being in the presence of a prophet.

When the Messenger of God noticed the situation, he said, “What are you doing? Come to your senses! I am not a king; I am the son of a Qurayshi woman who lived on dried pieces of meat under the sun.”[91]

With those words, the Prophet set a unique example of modesty. When he was left free to choose between becoming a prophet who is a king and a prophet who is a servant, he chose to be a prophet who is a servant.[92]

Modesty was always prevalent in his heart.

When the Bedouin heard those words from the Messenger of God, he felt relieved and stopped shaking.

An Example of Justice

Makkah had been conquered but the Messenger of God had not left this holy land yet.  

A woman from Sons of Mahzum called Fatima bint Aswad committed theft. She was a respectable, noble woman and the Qurayshis respected her.  

The Prophet was informed about the situation. They knew that the hand of a person who stole would be cut off. However, they were thinking about it and asking one another, “How could the hand of a woman of high rank be cut off?”

The family of Fatima was looking for a gleam of hope to save Fatima’s hand. They wanted someone to go to the Prophet and be an intercessor. However, nobody dared it.

Eventually, Usama b. Zayd undertook this duty. Usama was loved by the Prophet a lot. He probably accepted to talk to the Prophet about the issue by trusting his love.  

When Usama asked the Messenger of God to forgive the woman, the color of the face of the Messenger of God changed and he said,

“Are you talking to me about forgiving a penalty that God imposed in order to stop bad deeds?”

Usama felt sorry and said, “O Messenger of God! Ask God to forgive me for this behavior of mine.”

After teaching Usama a lesson, the Messenger of God stood up in the evening, praised God and addressed the people around as follows:

“Those before you were destroyed because of the following attitudes:

When a person of high status stole, they let him go, and when a person of low status stole, they enforced the sentence on to him.

 I swear by God, in whose hand is the existence of Muhammad, if Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, stole, I would cut her hand off”:

Then, he ordered the hand of the woman be cut off. The hand of the woman was cut off.

The woman repented and then got married. She often visited Hazrat Aisha after that.[93]

With this attitude, the Prophet set a unique example of justice, which is indispensable for the continuation of a nation.

The Places around Makkah are Cleaned of Idols

After cleaning the Kaaba and Makkah from the idols, the Prophet wanted to eliminate the idols around the city.

He sent Khalid b. Walid with a group of thirty people to demolish the idol Uzza, which was in Nahla. Upon this order, Khalid demolished Uzza, which was regarded as the greatest idol among the Qurayshis.[94]

The Prophet sent Sa’d b. Zayd al-Ashhal in order to demolish Manat, the idol on the mount of Mushallal. It was the idol of Aws and Khazraj tribes. Upon the order of the Prophet Sa’d b. Zayd went there with the Muslims near him, demolished Manat and returned.

Another famous idol of the polytheists was Suwa. It was in a place about three miles away from Makkah. The Messenger of God sent Amr b. As to demolish that idol, which was the idol of the Sons of Kinana, Huzays and Muzaynas. Amr fulfilled his duty and returned to Makkah.[95]

With the conquest of Makkah, both the inside of Makkah and the places around it were cleaned of idols; the hearts of the Qurayshis were also cleaned of polytheism and became spotless with the light of oneness.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]Aal-i Imran, 96.

[2]Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 332; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 4, p. 325.

[3]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 332; Waqidi, Maghazi, Vol. 2, p. 612.

[4]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 783.

[5]Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 3, p. 4.

[6]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 32; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, Vol. 2, p. 164.

[7]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 36-37; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 111.

[8]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 37; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[9]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 791.

[10]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 37; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 6.

[11]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 38.

[12]Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 7.

[13]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 38; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 532; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 112.

[14]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 38; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 112; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 7.

[15]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 38; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 112.

[16]Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 7.

[17]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 38; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 112; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 166.

[18]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 39; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 112.

[19]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 39; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 134; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 113.

[20]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 39; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 113.

[21]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 39-40.

[22]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 13; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 207.

[23]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 39.

[24]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 799.

[25]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135.

[26]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42.

[27]Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 1941; Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 5, p. 409.

[28]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 41; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 114.

[29]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 40; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 1941.

[30]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 41; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 80; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 1941; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 114.

[31]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 105.

[32]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 105.

[33]al-Mumtahina, 1.

[34]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 114.

[35]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 139; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 90.

[36]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42.

[37]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 49-50.

[38]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 43; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 114.

[39]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 819.

[40]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42.

[41]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135.

[42]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 126; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1621.

[43]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 126; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1621.

[44]For more detailed information regarding the Prophet’s herding sheep, see the first volume of this book.  

[45]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 42; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 114.

[46]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 45; Tabari ibid, Vol. 3, p. 116.

[47]Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 116

[48]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 46; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 116; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 18.

[49]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 45-46; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 116; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 18-19.

[50]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 46; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 116; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 552; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 19.

[51]Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 552.

[52]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 46.

[53]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4. p. 47.

[54]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4. p. 47; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135.

[55]Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 117.

[56]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 47; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 117.

[57]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 47; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 170.

[58]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 47; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 182.

[59]Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, Vol. 1, p. 265.

[60]Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 49.

[61]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 51.

[62]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 136.

[63]Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 61.

[64]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 135.

[65]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 50.

[66]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 136.

[67]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 54.

[68]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 59; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1408.

[69]Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1408.

[70]Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 576.

[71]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 59; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 180.

[72]Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 62.

[73]Al-Isra, 81.

[74]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 59; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1408.

[75]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 56; Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, Vol. 2, p. 184.

[76]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 56.

[77]Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 62.

[78]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 59; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 410; Tirmidhi, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 389; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 4, p. 185.

[79]Due to Yusuf’s high ethics and facial beauty and the fact that their father loved him more than them, his brothers envied him and threw him into a well in Kanan. The people in a caravan passing by found him and took him to Egypt. After many incidents, Yusuf became the sultan of Egypt.

The divine qadar brought Yusuf and his brothers together after Yusuf became the sultan. When his brothers recognized Yusuf, they regretted what they had done.

Thereupon, Yusuf forgave his brothers by saying, “Today and from now on, there is no reproach and blame for you, nor any torture. I forgive you.”

When the Prophet said to the Qurayshi polytheists, “My situation and your situation are like what Joseph (Yusuf) said to his friends”, he wanted to remind that incident.

[80]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 55; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 142; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 120.

[81]al-A’raf, 199.

[82]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 430-431; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Vol. 1, p. 683-684.

[83]seeAss. Prof. İbrahim Canan, Tebliğ Terbiye ve Siyasî Taktik Açılarından Hicret, p. 30.

[84]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 58; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 137; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 32, Vol. 2, p. 207-211; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 63-66.

[85]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 55; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 178.

[86]In some tafsir books, it is stated that Uthman b. Talha became a Muslim on the day of the conquest of Makkah. However, this view is not regarded valid by historians. The sound narration, as we have mentioned beforehand, is that Uthman b. Talha went to Madinah in the 7th year of the Migration in the month of Muharram and became a Muslim in the presence of the Prophet.

[87]Ibn Qayyim, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 184.

[88]Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 178.

[89]Nasafi, Tafsir, Vol. 4, p. 250.

[90]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 48; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 451.

[91]Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 556; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 43; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, Vol. 1, p. 266.

[92]Kadı İyaz, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 262.

[93]Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 65; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 114.

[94]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 145.

[95]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 146.



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